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HIV & AIDS is a major threat to Gujrat, Pakistan

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  1. HIV & AIDS Muhammad Imran Lecturer HM & DC, JPJ, Gujrat

  2. HIV & AIDS • Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a fatal disease caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). • Immunodeficiency means to the inability of the body defense system to function due to the loss of immunity cells (CD4 and T lymphocytes)

  3. Why it is called as acquired disease? • Acquired means that the condition is not inherited but the result of infection that are not present before. • AIDS was first reported in the United States in 1981.


  5. Infection Cycle • Attachment to CD4 receptor site • Entry into Macrophages (CCR5) • Replication of RNA into DNA • New Viral Strain after mutation • Entry into T Cells (CXCR 4)

  6. HIV infection stages • The period between infection with HIV and appearance of clinical manifestation of AIDS varies from six months to more than 10 years. • Acute stage • Latency period 3. Persistent generalized lymphadenopathy 4. AIDS related complexes 5. AIDS

  7. Acute stage • The person has few general manifestations after infection • Fever, Depression, fatigue, muscular pain, headache, night sweats, lassitude & cough • Symptoms disappear within 1-2 weeks & and test will be negative • If this happen, the patient should be screened after 3 months

  8. Latency period • May be several months to several years • Patient appear to be normal & healthy, while virus keep on multiplying and infect more & more lymphocytes

  9. Persistent generalized lymphadenopathy • Symptoms of enlarged nodes in two or more extra-inguinal sites • This condition may persists for several months • The patient looks healthy

  10. AIDS related complexes (ARC) Symptoms • Chronic diarrhea, weight loss, malaise, fatigue, lethargy, amnesia, abdominal discomfort, fever, night sweats, headache, lymphadenopathy and splenomegali. • Weakness of memory & peripheral neuropathy • Weight loss is progressive • In severe cases, zoster (skin rash with blisters), genital infections (herpes virus) and oral hairy leukoplakia (white patch on the side of the tongue)

  11. AIDS • More severe symptoms as described above • Opportunistic infections and tumors • TB

  12. World Scenario

  13. Causes in Pakistan • Widespread poverty, • Lack of any system to check the HIV positive reported persons • Transfusion of unscreened blood, • Rising number of drug addicts • Low condom use rates, • Same injection to different people • are the serious risk factors that put the country in danger of facing a rapid spread of HIV.

  14. Main ways of transmission • Sexual intercourse 90 % HIV infections (homosexual & heterosexual) 2. Blood & Blood Products Contaminated Needles, transfusion of blood Skin piercing instruments IV drug users 3. Mother to Child

  15. HIV infection is not transmitted • Shaking hands & Embracing • Eating, drinking with HIV person • Sitting next to HIV patient in the class • Visiting patients in hospitals • Using Public swimming pools, telephones, showers • Sneezing & coughing • From insects

  16. Situation in Pakistan • Pakistan’s first HIV/AIDS case was detected in 1987. The number has been increased according to the annual report of Pakistan National AIDS Control Program • By 2010 the total number of registered cases has reached to more than 6000. • But the number of infected persons might be running in millions if proper screening is carried out.

  17. Injecting drug users has been screened for HIV in Jalalpur Jattan (Gujrat) where 90 HIV positive cases were found in 2009, out of 342 samples from the general population that included a large number of sex-migrant workers. • The mode of HIV/AIDS transmission in Pakistan is largely heterosexual (52.55%), the most commonly reported modes of transmission are contaminated blood or blood products (11.73%).

  18. 2007-2008 data

  19. In 2011, Jalal Pur Jattan • 600 hundred people were affected by HIV and AIDS in 2011in Jalal Pur Jattan. ARY breaking news • In 2012, 93 patients were HIV positive in Gujrat from January to April (Recent Data) Punjab AIDS Control Program

  20. Diagnosis centre 1. RNA PCR • Shaukat Khanum Hospital, PIMS, NIH 2. HIV ELISA • Excel and City Labs, Shakat Khanum, Services Hospital, Mayo Hospital, Chughtai labs, NIH 3. CD4 count • Shaukat Khanum Hospital, PIMS, Shifa • Kits All Pakistan

  21. Precautions • To avoid infections such as HIV and viral hepatitis do not share needles for tattoos, body piercing, or injections. • To reduce the risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases always use latex condoms • Visit those Dentists who have Autoclaving facilities. • Barbers should use detol or spirit and new blade for each shave • During Blood transfusion should screened for HIV and other viral diseases

  22. Drugs

  23. Future perspectives • In a country with low literacy rate one should expect low level of awareness about HIV/AIDS. • Awareness needs to be created at all levels especially in rural areas. • The government should know its responsibilities and should provide the necessary legal and regulatory frame work for dealing with this silent killer disease. • This disease is spreading continuously without knowing the boundaries. Further strategies must be implemented. Otherwise it will be impossible to get rid of this lethal wave.

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