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  1. CAU PREPARATION Hypothesis: Bowness-on Windermere is negatively affected by being a Honeypot site.

  2. Where are the National Parks? There are 12 National Parks in England and Wales. The New Forest became a National Park in 2005. The South Downs is currently in the process of being designated a National Park. There are two National Parks in Scotland – The Cairngorms, and Loch Lomand & the Trossachs.

  3. Where are the National Parks? • With the help of an atlas, describe the distribution of the National Parks in England and Wales. • Consider their position in relation to human and natural features such as motorways, settlements and highland areas.

  4. Where are the National Parks? • What is a National Park? • Why do people visit the Lake District? • What are the consequences of tourism in the Lake District? • How can tourism be managed? Learning objectives

  5. What are National Parks? National Parks are protected areas of natural beauty. The areas include mountains, moorland, heathland, woodland and coasts. National Parks are not theme parks – they are not fenced off and people live and work in them. Each National Park is managed by a National Park Authority (NPA), which works to balance the needs of the landscape, the residents and the visitors. Snowdonia Exmoor

  6. What are the aims of the National Parks? • To protect and enhance the natural beauty and wildlife. • To promote the understanding and enjoyment of the Parks. • To foster the social and economic well-being of the communities living in the National Parks. Can you see how these duties may conflict with one another?

  7. Private Forestry Commission National Trust Water companies Ministry of Defence National Parks Others Land ownership in Britain’s National Parks Study the pie chart showing the land ownership in Britain’s National Parks. • Who owns most of the land? • Why may it be difficult for the National Park Authorities to control what happens in the National Parks?

  8. Where are the National Parks? • What is a National Park? • Why do people visit the Lake District? • What are the consequences of tourism in the Lake District? • How can tourism be managed? Learning objectives

  9. Why do people visit the Lake District? Study the photographs!

  10. Why do people visit the Lake District? Make a list of activities people can do in the Lake District.

  11. Major honeypot areas in the Lake District Where are the major honeypot areas in the Lake District? Major honeypot areas

  12. What is a honeypot site? A honeypot site is a place of natural or historical interest that attracts people in large numbers. What features make Lake Windermere a honeypot site? the Lake District’s only car ferry picnic sites and car parks National Park tourist information centre boating on Lake Windermere viewpoints across Lake Windermere camping and caravan sites, hotels and cafes

  13. Where are the National Parks? • What is a National Park? • Why do people visit the Lake District? • What are the consequences of tourism in the Lake District? • How can tourism be managed? Learning objectives

  14. Consequences of tourism in the Lake District? Study the photographs!

  15. Consequences of tourism

  16. Consequences of tourism

  17. Consequences of tourism

  18. How does footpath erosion occur?

  19. Where are the National Parks? • What is a National Park? • Why do people visit the Lake District? • What are the consequences of tourism in the Lake District? • How can tourism be managed? Learning objectives

  20. Managing tourism in the Lake District How is tourism managed in the Lake District? separate trails for mountain-bikers improved public transport park-and-ride schemes speed restrictions on the lakes, e.g. 10 mph on Lake Windermere ban of second homes promotion of ‘timeshare’ holiday homes, e.g. Great Langdale holiday homes limited car parking repair of stone walls and eroded footpaths e.g. footpath repair at Dollywagon Pike screening of car parks and industry by planting trees traffic restrictions Select 3 ways of managing tourism in the Lake District and discuss their advantages and disadvantages.

  21. CAU 2012-2013 Hypothesis: Bowness-on Windermere is negatively affected by being a Honeypot site. How can we measure if this true or false? Any ideas?

  22. Methodology table • You will need to produce a detailed methodology table like this before we go on the fieldtrip.

  23. You will be working in small groups to complete the following tasks: CORE: • FOOTPATH EROSION SURVEY • LAND USE MAPPING • TAX DISC SURVEY • TRAFFIC SURVEY • PHOTOGRAPHS • FIELDSKETCHES AN OPTIONAL TECHNIQUE FROM: • PEOPLE COUNT • ENVIRONMENTAL SURVEY • QUESTIONNAIRE • BUISNESS SURVEY

  24. Measuring footpath erosion • Measurements of width and depth can easily be taken on footpaths to assess the damage caused by trampling and other types of erosion. To measure the amount of erosion: • Stretch a measuring tape across the width of the path. • Record the width of the footpath • Record the depth of the footpath at regular intervals across the width (intervals will change depending on whether the path is narrow or wide- use smaller intervals for narrow path). See diagram below. • Repeat the depth measurements at regular intervals along the path, to build up an idea of the amount of erosion along the path. • The data can be presented in the form of a cross section diagram showing the depth and width at each measuring interval along the path (these can then be compared to the results from another path). • To compare footpaths effectively you could have groups working on a path each, then presenting their data to the rest of the group. • Management strategies could also be discussed. EQUIPMENT- • MEASURING TAPE • METER RULER • RECORDING SHEET

  25. LAND USE SURVEY You will mark on a map the buildings in the centre of Bowness and record what the building is used for as below: You will only need your recording sheet/map and pencil

  26. Tax disc count – record the origin of 50 cars in car parks (you should look at 2 different car parks therefore 25 in each) located in and around Bowness by looking at their tax disc.

  27. You will work in a small group to do a traffic count. Each group will be sent to an allocated position. For 5 minutes you will count vehicles going past you in both directions. You will create a tally chart of cars you see and then create a diagram like the one shown back at school.

  28. OPTIONAL TECHNIQUES

  29. Woodland Visitor Questionnaire We are from Kingswood High School and we are doing some fieldwork about this woodland. We want to find out who uses it, why they come here and how it is managed. Would you be able to answer a few questions for us? It should only take a couple of minutes. Name of interviewerFreddie T Name of woodlandHill Top Woods Date 28 April 2006 Time 2pm Weather conditions Sunny and dry Location within woodlandOn main footpath near car park Respondent details Age group Under 10 10-19 20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59 60-69 70+ Gender Male Female Travel Where have you travelled from to visit this woodland (name of village or town)? Littleton Approximately how far away is that in miles? 6 miles How long did it take you?10 minutes How did you travel here (e.g. private car, public bus, train)? Own car Visits How many times have you been to this woodland before? Never Once Twice Between 3 and 10 times More than 10 times How frequently do you come? A More than once a week B Once a week C Several times a month D Once a month E Several times a year F Once a year G Less than once a year What is the main purpose of your visit today? Dog walking How long do you expect to stay? About 1 hour How many people are in your group today? One If you have visited the woodland before what other activities have you done? Bird watching Picnics Nature Walks organised by the Visitor Centre Impressions What do you like most about this woodland? Nice wide footpaths which are not too steep – I am getting older! What do you like least about this woodland? Lots of litter near the main car park Have you noticed any ways in which this woodland is managed? They keep some parts fenced off so you can’t walk there – I think it’s to protect some types of flowers. I sometimes see volunteers repairing the footpaths. Have you noticed any changes over time in how this woodland looks or the way it is managed? There are a lot more footpaths now and they’re surfaced better, probably so that wheelchairs and prams can use them. They put up new information boards and maps a few years ago. Would you like to make any suggestions as to how this woodland could be improved? I’d like to see the Visitor Centre run more of their special walks. Maybe there should be a few more litter bins too. Design a questionnaire to ask people in the street- these could be visitors or residents. Could you ask them their opinion on what they think the benefits and problems of tourism could be to Bowness could be?

  30. Sampling What is sampling? A shortcut method for investigating a whole population Data is gathered on a small part of the whole parent population or sampling frame, and used to inform what the whole picture is like Why sample? In reality there is simply not enough; time, energy, money, labour/man power, equipment, access to suitable sites to measure every single item or site within the parent population or whole sampling frame. Therefore an appropriate sampling strategy is adopted to obtain a representative, and statistically valid sample of the whole. Sampling considerations Larger sample sizes are more accurate representations of the whole . Sampling techniques Three main types of sampling strategy: Random Systematic Stratified Random sampling Least biased of all sampling techniques, there is no subjectivity - each member of the total population has an equal chance of being selected Systematic sampling Samples are chosen in a systematic, or regular way. They are evenly/regularly distributed in a spatial context, for example every two metres along a transect line They can be at equal/regular intervals in a temporal context, for example every half hour or at set times of the day They can be regularly numbered, for example every 10th house or person Stratified sampling This method is used when the parent population or sampling frame is made up of sub-sets of known size. These sub-sets make up different proportions of the total, and therefore sampling should be stratified to ensure that results are proportional and representative of the whole.

  31. Managing tourism in the Lake District The Lake District National Park Authority (LDNPA) has a duty to ensure that tourism is sustainable. ‘The aim of sustainable development is to use resources in a wiser, fairer and more balanced way. The quality of people's lives and the state of our communities is affected by a combination of economic, social and environmental factors. These factors are interlinked and it is important that our actions show positive benefits for all three, not just for today, but for future generations as well.’ LDNPA

  32. Managing tourism in the Lake District Education schemes are one approach that the National Park Authority is using to manage tourism in the Lake District: The NPA promotes schemes to persuade people not to use their cars. The Car Free CareFree scheme is an example of this. The Countryside Code is aimed at educating visitors on how they should act responsibly in the National Park.

  33. Managing tourism in the Lake District A 10mph speed limit has been imposed on Lake Windermere. Explain why management schemes can create conflicts.

  34. Managing tourism in the Lake District Some of the scars created by footpath erosion are so large they can be seen in satellite images! The LDNPA has launched a Fix the Fells scheme which aims at fundraising money for the repair of over 145 seriously eroded footpaths. Footpath repair is carried out using local plant species and avoids the use of visually obtrusive materials. All path building is carried out using local and traditional methods. LDNPA’s advice to walkers: ‘There are many lower fells which are not only less crowded, but often have better views and are less demanding. Avoid walking to the sides of paths or taking shortcuts.’ Explain why the LDNPA advises visitors where and how to walk!