November 6, 1869-Rutgers and Princeton UniversitiesField: 120 Yards Long, 75 YardsRound, Soccer-Style BallFirst Contest: Rutgers wins 6-4
1883: 5 points for field goals, 2 points for touchdowns and 4 points for kicking.1884: Touchdowns were 4 points, point after conversion-2 points, field goals were 5 points
1898: Touchdowns 5 points Point after - 1 point Field goal 5 points1912: Touchdown 6 points Field goal 3 pointsNote: No forward pass is allowed
1905: 18 players were killed 159 were injured President Roosevelt called for reform.1905: NCAA was formed (Intercollegiate Athletic Association).
Walter Camp:Father of American Football • Developed Line of Scrimmage • 11 Players per Team • 110 Yard Field • Developed Concept of Downs
College Football: Black Athletes First Black All-American - William Henry Lewis of Amherst College
William Henry Lewis • Born in Berkeley, Virginia, 1868 • 5’7” and weighed 180 pounds • Began Career at the Center Position • Team Captain (2 years)
Nebraska State Journal: “Flippen went through the center like a cannonball, and Denver had a special push for him. He was kicked, slugged, and jumped on, but never knocked out, and gave as good as he received. (He became a physician.)”
The first game between a white and black college was held in New York City in 1947.Wilberforce College (oldest black college) defeated Bergen College of New Jersey 40-12.
Paul Robeson • 1915: Rutgers University • 1916: Game against W&L did not play because of racism • Played professional football to pay law school tuition: Columba University
Dr. Charles West: W&J • 1920-1924: Football running back. • 1922: Fist Black QB: Rose Bowl • 1923 and 1924: National Pentathlon Champ • Visit to WVU: 1921 • Medical Degree: Howard University- Football Coach
Football in 1946 was the backbone of the black colleges dating back to the 1890’s.
HBCU Athletic Conferences • Central Intercollegiate Athletic Conference: Shaw, Livingstone, Johnson C. Smith, Bowie State, Virginia Union • Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference: Hampton, Northfolk State, Morgan, Howard, South Carolina State, Deleware State
HBCU Sport Conferences • Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Conference: Lincoln, Stillman, Morehouse, Fort Valley State, Alabama A&M, Kentucky State, Clark Atlanta, Lane, Tuskegee • Southwestern Athletic Conference: Alabama State, Jackson State, Mississippi Valley, Southern, Grambling, Texas Southern, Prairie View A&M
Heisman Trophy:The First African American Athlete Winners Selected by Downtown Athletic Club Since 1935 John W. Heisman, 1917 Georgia Tech National Champion Coach was founder.
Jay Berwanger - 1935 First Winner, University of ChicagoErnie Davis (#44) Syracuse University 1961 (First African American to be awarded the Heisman Trophy)
Mike Garrett (#20) USC - Running Back - 1965O.J. Simpson (#32) - USC - Running Back - 1968Archie Griffin - Ohio State Running Back - 1974, 1975 (Ran for 100 yards or more in 31 straight games)
Tony Dorsett - University of Pittsburgh - Running Back - 1976Earl Campbell - University of Texas Running Back - 1977Billy Sims - Oklahoma - Running Back - 1978 (averaged 7 yards a carry)
Marcus Allen - USC - Running Back 1981Herschel Walker (#34) - University of Georgia - Running Back - 1982George Rogers - South Carolina Running Back - 1983
Bo Jackson - Auburn - Running Back - 1985Barry Sanders - Oklahoma State University - Running Back - 1988Andre Ware - Houston - 1989
Desmond Howard - Michigan - 1991Charlie Ward - Florida State - 1993Rashaan Salaam - Colorado - 1994Eddie George - Ohio State - 1995
Charles Woodson - Michigan - 1997Ricky Williams - Texas - 1998Ron Dayne - Wisconsin - 1999
Heissman Trophy Between 1971 - 1994: Ten awardees or 67% were black and all were running backs.
1892: Yale All-American guard William “Pudge” Heffelfinger received a $500 “performance bonus” from Allegheny Athletic Association to join their team for a game with the Pittsburgh Athletic Club (AAA won 4-0).
1893: Pittsburgh Athletic Club hired Grant Dibert for the entire season.1902: 2 Philadelphia teams (Athletics and Phillies) joined with Pittsburgh Stars to form the National Football League.
1904: 7 of the games top professional teams were in Ohio1920: Meeting in Canton, Ohio, formed new league - American Professional Football Association (APFA). George Hales - Prime Mover (Manager and coach of Decatur, IL).
1921: APFA comprised of 22 teams.1922: APFA changed name to NFL Hales renamed his team -moved to Chicago - became Bears.
Professional Football:Black Players 1902: Charles W. Follis - Cloverdale, Virginia - Played for Shelby Athletic Association and moved to Wooster, Ohio (Wooster Athletic Association). Charles’ teammate was Branch Rickey, later President of Brooklyn Dodgers.
In a game against Toledo, it was stated, “The Shelby halfback is a Negro, and the crowd got after him early. The Toledo captain had to address the crowd.”Follis stopped playing football in 1906. (He was 6’ tall and 200 pounds.)
Fritz Pollard • 5’8” and 165 pounds. Running Back • Enrolled in Northwestern U. :1913 but left college. He Just wanted to play.
1914 he went to Brown University. Failed entrance exam in Spanish - Went to Dartmouth, from there on to Bates College - Finally back to Brown University. • Game against Amherst, he returned punt for 60 yards. • Runs of 20-35 yards were common. • 1921 - First Black in the NFL.
In the 1930’s and 40’s, blacks were forced out of professional football. (No Blacks played in the NFL during this time period.
1934 - 1945: Blacks were excluded from NFL. • Blacks were seen as disciplinary problems. • White players demanded the black players be dropped. (Blacks were paid more than white players - $1500 - $1800 per game.) • Racism - Local and National Level
1946: All-American Football Conference (AAFC) was organized and allowed teams to sign blacks.Cleveland Browns signed Marion Motley. (1948 led in rushing: 964 yards.)Motley - First black player in the Hall of Fame (football).Browns won AAFC: 1946-1949
Marion Motley: Browns- 1946 • 1946: All American Football Conference: • Black Football Players: Marion Motley, Bill Willis, Kenny Washington and Woody Strode • Motley: AAFC leading rusher ( 9 year pro)
Others/Black - 1947 Buddy Young, Running Back, New York Yankees; Elmore Harris, Running Back, Brooklyn Dodgers; Bert Piggott, Running Back/ Defensive Back, L.A. Rams; Bill Bass, Running Back/ Defensive Back, Chicago Rockets
AAFC Last Year Was 1949:1949 L.A. Rams signed the first black from a HBCU - Paul “Tank” Younger of Grambling. He was a two time All-American.
In 1962, the Washington Redskins was the last team to sign black - Bobby Mitchell. George Preston, owner, did not want to sign blacks.