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Introduction To Computer Engineering,
Öğr. Gör. Esra Dinçer
Computer hardware encompasses the physical interconnections and devices required to store and execute (or run) the software.
Software is an ordered sequence of instructions for changing the state of the computer hardware in a particular sequence.
At the lowest level, software consists of a machine language specific to an individual processor. A machine language consists of groups of binary values signifying processor instructions which change the state of the computer from its preceding state.
Software may also be written in an assembly language, essentially, a mnemonic representation of a machine language using a natural language alphabet.
Software is usually written in high-level programming languages.
7. Documentation, which might include a program description, a structure chart, a flowchart, a program listing, and an interactive session (I/O when the program is run), is critical if the program is ever modified.
6. The program is tested and debugged. Debugging rids the program of bugs, eliminating syntax errors (violations of one of the rules for writing instructions) and logic errors.
5. Steps 1 through 4 are translated into machine-readable instructions called programs.
4. The detailed design results in a graphic representation of the program logic that includes all processing activities and their relationships, calculations, data manipulations, logic operations, and all input/output.
3. The general design of the program is oriented primarily to the major processing activities and the relationships between these activities. By first completing a general program design, you make it easier to investigate alternative design approaches.
2. Break the problem into its basic components for analysis. A good starting place for most programs is to analyze the output, input, processing, and file-interaction components.
1. Identify exactly what needs to be done. It often helps to describe the problem in words.
Batch processing is execution of a series of programs on a computer without human interaction.Batch jobs are set up so they can be run to completion without human interaction, so all input data is preselected through scripts or command-line parameters. This is in contrast to "online" or interactive programs which prompt the user for such input.
The high-level programming languages that are easier and more efficient for humans to use (closer to natural language) than machine language. High-level languages are compiled or interpreted into machine language object code.
The details look different in different languages, but a few basic instructions appear in just about every language: