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W riting C hapter 3: Q uantitative R esearch D esigns . Chapter 3 should. d escribe what will be done to answer the research question(s), d escribe how it will be done and justify the research design, and e xplain how the results will be analyzed . . M ethodology C hapter.

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W riting c hapter 3 q uantitative r esearch d esigns

Writing Chapter 3:Quantitative Research Designs

Chapter 3 should
Chapter 3 should

  • describe whatwill be done to answer the research question(s),

  • describe how it will be done and justify the research design, and

  • explain howthe resultswill be analyzed.

M ethodology c hapter
Methodology Chapter

Scientific writing is direct and orderly. Therefore, the methodology chapter should

  • describe the materials used in the study,

  • explain how the materials are prepared for the study,

  • describe the research protocol,

  • explain how measurements are made and whatcalculations are performed, and

  • state which statistical tests are done to analyze the data.

M ethodology chapter cont
Methodology Chapter (Cont.)

It must be written with enough information so that

  • the study could be repeated by others to evaluate whether the results are reproducible

  • the audience can judge whether the results and conclusions are valid.


  • Describe, in detail, the process to follow forselecting the research participants (the sampling method).

  • Judging the external validity of a study involving human participants (i.e., to whom the study results may be applied) requires that descriptive data be provided regarding the basic demographic profile of the sample population, including

    • age,

    • gender, and

    • Possibly, the racial composition of the sample.

Measurements instrumentations

The next step in the methodology chapter is to

  • describe what variables will be measured and

  • howthose measurementswill be made.

Measurements instrumentations cont
Measurements/Instrumentations (Cont.)

  • How long will it take to administer the instrument?

  • Are the directions clear?

  • How easy is it to score the instrument?

  • Do equivalent forms of the instrument exist?

  • Have any problems been reported by others who used it?

  • If applicable, how was the instrument normed?

  • Provide information on the instrument’s validity and reliability.

Research design
Research Design

  • The research design is the sequence of manipulations and measurement procedures that make up the study.

  • Its description should follow the exact sequence of how the procedures will be executed.Most important, you should provide a clearjustificationfor choosing a specific research design.

  • The research design should allow you to answer the research question.


The methodology chapter should describe the steps to carry out the research.

  • Wherewill the data be collected?

  • Whenwill the data be collected?

  • How often are the data to be collected?

  • Whois to collect the data?

Data analysis
Data Analysis

The methodology chapter should describe

  • the applicable summary descriptive statistics or how the data will be presented in the results section (e.g., mean vs. median),

  • which statistical tests will be used for the inferential data analysis, and

  • what p value is deemed to indicate a statistically significant difference.

Ethical considerations
Ethical Considerations

When working with subjects, there must be a declaration that the study protocol adheres to ethical principles.

  • Obtain IRB approval.

  • Respect the rights of the participants (consent and assent forms).

  • Honor the requests and restrictions of the research site (institutional and site specific).

  • Report the research fully and honestly.

Creswell, J. W. (2012). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.