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Increasing Wind Power Generation Penetration Degree in Brazil: a Challenge for the Brazilian Interconnected Power System. Francisco José Arteiro de Oliveira Operation Planning and Scheduling Director. Agenda. Introduction

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slide1

Increasing Wind Power Generation Penetration Degree in Brazil: a Challenge for the Brazilian Interconnected Power System

Francisco José Arteiro de OliveiraOperation Planning and Scheduling Director

agenda
Agenda
  • Introduction
  • Wind power generation penetration degree increase in the Brazilian Energetic Matrix
  • Characteristics of wind power plants in Brazil
  • Major challenges for the increase of wind generation penetration degree in the Brazilian Interconnected Power System - BIPS
  • Ongoing improvements necessary to connect wind farms to grids with high wind generation penetration degree
  • Conclusions
brazilian interconected power system bips

Grande River

Cemig

Furnas

AES-Tiete

CESP

CDSA

Consórcios

Copel

Tractebel

Tiete River

Paranaiba River

ParanapanemaRiver

ITAIPUBINATIONAL

Iguaçu River

Brazilian Interconected Power System - BIPS
  • The BIPS covers 2/3 of the national territory:5 million km2
  • The BIPS supplies about 98% of the country’s electricity consumption.
  • Hydro generation is dominant: about 79% of the installed capacity
  • Thermal generation is complementary with diversity of fuels: nuclear, coal, natural gas, oil, diesel (about 16%)
  • Small share (about 5%) of other renewable energies: wind and biomass
  • Main transmission grid with long distance lines (≥ 230 kV). Over 100,000 km of transmission lines

+3.400km

Isolated systems

BrazilianInterconnected Power

System

+3.400km

Utilities

brazilian interconected power system bips1
Brazilian Interconected Power System - BIPS
  • Multi-owned: 97 agents own assets (≥ 230 kV)
  • The Main Transmission Grid is operated and expanded in order to achieve safety of supply and system optimization
  • Inter-regional and inter-basin transmission links allow interchange of large blocks of energy between regions, based on the hydrological diversity between river basins
  • The current challenge is the interconnection of the projects in the Amazonian Region
brazilian electricity supply in 2012
Brazilian Electricity Supply in 2012

Source: Brazilian Energy Balance 2013 / year 2012 – MME/EPE

regularization capacity evolution

Evolution of Cumulative Volume and of the Installed Power (hidro generation) in BIPS

330

110,000

InstalledCapacity

Serra da Mesa

300

3

3

100,000

- 43.3 . 10

hm

Useful Volume

Emborcação

3

3

- 13.1 . 10

hm

270

90,000

Nova Ponte

3

3

Tucuruí

Capivara - 5.7 . 10

hm

3

3

- 10.4 . 10

hm

3

3

- 39.0 . 10

hm

240

80,000

3

3

Sobradinho – 28.7 . 10

hm

)

MW

3

3

São Simão

-

5

.

5

.

10

hm

)

(

210

70,000

3

hm

Hidro

3

3

Á

.

Vermelha

-

5.

.

2

.

10

hm

1000

-

180

60,000

3

3

Itumbiara – 12.5 . 10

hm

(

150

50,000

Volume

Installedcapacity

Ilha Solteira e

GrowthBetween

2000

-

2014

Três Irmãos

-

16

.

3

.

120

40,000

3

3

10

hm

Installed Power

-

>

47

.

2

%

Volume

-

>

10

.

8

%

Marimbondo – 5.3 .

90

30,000

3

3

10

hm

Três Marias

-

15.

,

3

.

3

3

10

hm

60

20,000

Furnas

3

3

- 17.2 . 10

hm

30

10,000

0

0

1950

1955

1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

2014

Regularization Capacity Evolution

The 13 largest reservoirs identified in the figure have useful volume greather than 5 x 103 hm3, and together account for 74% of total accumulated volume

gradual reduction of regularization
Gradual Reduction of Regularization

Ten-yearPlan*

How many months of maximum energy storage

6.2

5.4

5.0

4.7

3.35

2021

2001

2013

2015

2017

Ratio between stored energy / load

the expansion of supply between 2012 and 2017
The Expansion of Supply Between 2012 and 2017
  • Includes the participation of Itaipu and small hidro power plants;
  • Includes small thermal power plants;
  • The portion "OTHER" refers to other thermal plants with CVU.
wind generation expansion in southern
Wind Generation Expansion in Southern

INSTALLED CAPACITY IN NOVEMBER 2012

621 MW

(21 UEE)

SC

Água Doce

Amparo

Aquibatã

Bom Jardim

Campo Belo

Cascata

Cruz Alta

Púlpito

Rio do Ouro

Salto

Santo Antônio

231 MW

RS

Cerro Chato I

Cerro Chato II

Cerro Chato III

Cidreira 1

Palmares

Parque Eólico de Osório

Parque Eólico de Sangradouro

Sangradouro 2

Sangradouro 3

Parque Eólico dos Índios

390 MW

Source: ANEEL

wind generation expansion in southern1
Wind Generation Expansion in Southern

INSTALLED CAPACITY IN DECEMBER 2015

1648 MW

621 MW

(21 UEE)

1027 MW

(43 UEE)

SC

Água Doce

Amparo

Aquibatã

Bom Jardim

Campo Belo

Cascata

Cruz Alta

Púlpito

Rio do Ouro

Salto

Santo Antônio

SOMENTE EMPREENDIMENTOS COM OUTORGA

231 MW

Atlântica I

Atlântica II

Atlântica IV

Atlântica V

Cerro Chato IV

Cerro Chato V

Cerro Chato VI

Cerro dos Trindade

Chuí I

Chuí II

Chuí IV

Chuí V

Corredor do Senandes II

Corredor do Senandes III

Corredor do Senandes IV

Dos Índios 2

Dos Índios 3

Fazenda Rosário 2

Força 1

Força 2

Força 3

Giruá

Ibirapuitã I

Minuano I

Minuano II

Osório 2

Osório 3

Pinhal

Pontal 2B

REB Cassino I

REB Cassino II

REB Cassino III

Vento Aragano I

Verace I

Verace II

Verace III

Verace IV

Verace V

Verace IX

Verace VI

Verace VII

Verace VIII

Verace X

RS

Cerro Chato I

Cerro Chato II

Cerro Chato III

Cidreira 1

Palmares

Parque Eólico de Osório

Parque Eólico de Sangradouro

Sangradouro 2

Sangradouro 3

Parque Eólico dos Índios

390 MW

1027 MW

Source: ANEEL

wind generation expansion in northeast
Wind Generation Expansion in Northeast

18 MW

542 MW

PEDRA DO SAL

PRAIA DO MORGADO

VOLTA DO RIO

PRAIA FORMOSA

AMONTADA

PARACURU

TAÍBA ALBATROZ

373 MW

PARQUE EÓLICO DE BEBERIBE

FOZ DO RIO CHORÓ

PRAIAS DE PARAJURU

BONS VENTOS

CANOA QUEBRADA

CANOA QUEBRADA (RV)

ENACEL

ICARAIZINHO

MA

ALEGRIA I

ALEGRIA II

ARATUÁ

MIASSABA III

MANGUE SECO 1

MANGUE SECO 2

MANGUE SECO 3

MANGUE SECO 5

INSTALLED CAPACITY IN NOVEMBER 2012

CE

RIO DO FOGO

RN

CABEÇO PRETO

CABEÇO PRETO IV

MILLENIUM

ALBATROZ

ATLÂNTICA

CAMURIM

CARAVELA

COELHOS I

COELHOS II

COELHOS III

COELHOS IV

MATARACÁ

PRESIDENTE

VITÓRIA

1154 MW

(50 UEE)

66 MW

PB

PI

ALHANDRA

PIRAUÁ

XAVANTE

PE

GRAVATÁ

MANDACARU

SANTA MARIA

25 MW

AL

SE

35 MW

Barra dos Coqueiros

BA

MACAÚBAS

NOVO HORIZONTE

SEABRA

95 MW

Source: ANEEL

wind generation expansion in northeast1
Wind Generation Expansion in Northeast

432 MW

Marco dos Ventos 1

Marco dos Ventos 2

Marco dos Ventos 3

Marco dos Ventos 4

Marco dos Ventos 5

Ventos do Norte 1

Ventos do Norte 10

Ventos do Norte 2

Ventos do Norte 3

Ventos do Norte 4

Ventos do Norte 5

Ventos do Norte 6

Ventos do Norte 7

Ventos do Norte 8

Ventos do Norte 9

18 MW

59 MW

Araras

Boca do Córrego

Buriti

Cajucoco

Cataventos Paracuru 1

Colônia

Coqueiro

Dunas de Paracuru

Embuaca

Faisa I

Faisa II

Faisa III

Faisa IV

Faisa V

Fleixeiras I

Garças

Guajirú

Icaraí

Tacaicó

Taíba Águia

Taíba Andorinha

Trairí

Vento do Oeste

Vento Formoso

Ventos de Horizonte

Ventos de Santa Rosa

Ventos de Santo Inácio

Ventos de São Geraldo

Ventos de Sebastião

Ventos de Tianguá

Ventos de Tianguá Norte

Ventos do Morro do Chapéu

Ventos do Parazinho

Icaraí I

Icaraí II

Ilha Grande

Jandaia

Jandaia I

Junco I

Junco II

Lagoa Seca

Malhadinha I

Mundaú

Pau Brasil

Pau Ferro

Pedra do Gerônimo

Planalto da Taíba

Porto Salgado

Potengi

Quixaba

Ribeirão

São Paulo

542 MW

1249 MW

PEDRA DO SAL

PRAIA DO MORGADO

VOLTA DO RIO

PRAIA FORMOSA

AMONTADA

PARACURU

TAÍBA ALBATROZ

373 MW

2559 MW

PARQUE EÓLICO DE BEBERIBE

FOZ DO RIO CHORÓ

PRAIAS DE PARAJURU

BONS VENTOS

CANOA QUEBRADA

CANOA QUEBRADA (RV)

ENACEL

ICARAIZINHO

MA

ALEGRIA I

ALEGRIA II

ARATUÁ

MIASSABA III

MANGUE SECO 1

MANGUE SECO 2

MANGUE SECO 3

MANGUE SECO 5

INSTALLED CAPACITY IN DECEMBER 2015

7738 MW

CE

RIO DO FOGO

RN

CABEÇO PRETO

CABEÇO PRETO IV

MILLENIUM

ALBATROZ

ATLÂNTICA

CAMURIM

CARAVELA

COELHOS I

COELHOS II

COELHOS III

COELHOS IV

MATARACÁ

PRESIDENTE

VITÓRIA

66 MW

PB

PI

ALHANDRA

PIRAUÁ

1154 MW

(50 UEE)

6584 MW

(210 UEE)

XAVANTE

PE

GRAVATÁ

MANDACARU

SANTA MARIA

78 MW

25 MW

AL

Aratuá 3

Areia Branca

Arizona I

Asa Branca I

Asa Branca II

Asa Branca III

Asa Branca IV

Asa Branca V

Asa Branca VI

Asa Branca VII

Asa Branca VIII

Caiçara 2

Caiçara do Norte

Calango 1

Calango 2

Calango 3

Calango 4

Calango 5

Campos dos Ventos II

Carcará I

Carcará II

Carnaúbas

Costa Branca

Dreen Boa Vista

Dreen Cutia

Dreen Guajiru

Dreen Olho d'Água

Dreen São Bento do Norte

Eurus I

Eurus II

Eurus III

Eurus IV

Eurus VI

Famosa I

Farol

GE Jangada

GE Maria Helena

Juremas

Lanchinha

Macacos

Mar e Terra

Mel 02

Miassaba 3

Miassaba 4

Modelo I

Modelo II

Morro dos Ventos I

Morro dos Ventos II

Morro dos Ventos III

Morro dos Ventos IV

Morro dos Ventos IX

Morro dos Ventos VI

Pelado

Pedra Preta

Reduto

Rei dos Ventos 1

Rei dos Ventos 3

Rei dos Ventos 4

Renascença I

Renascença II

Renascença III

Renascença IV

Renascença V

Riachão I

Riachão II

Riachão IV

Riachão VI

Riachão VII

Santa Clara I

Santa Clara II

Santa Clara III

Santa Clara IV

Santa Clara V

Santa Clara VI

Santa Helena

Santo Cristo

São João

Serra de Santana I

Serra de Santana II

Serra de Santana III

SM

União dos Ventos 1

União dos Ventos 10

União dos Ventos 2

União dos Ventos 3

União dos Ventos 4

União dos Ventos 5

União dos Ventos 6

União dos Ventos 7

União dos Ventos 8

União dos Ventos 9

Ventos de Santo Uriel

Ventos de São Miguel

SOMENTE EMPREENDIMENTOS COM OUTORGA

SE

35 MW

Barra dos Coqueiros

BA

MACAÚBAS

NOVO HORIZONTE

SEABRA

1144 MW

95 MW

Inhambu

Joana

Licínio de Almeida

Maron

Morrão

N. Sra. da Conceição

Pajeú do Vento

Pedra Branca

Pedra do Reino

Pedra do Reino III

Pelourinho

Pilões

Pindaí

Planaltina

Porto Seguro

Primavera

Rio Verde

São Judas

São Pedro do Lago

Seraíma

Serra do Salto

Alvorada

Ametista

Angical

Borgo

Caetité

Caetité 2

Caetité 3

Caititu

Candiba

Coqueirinho

Corrupião

Cristal

Da Prata

Dos Araçás

Dourados

Emiliana

Espigão

Guanambi

Guirapá

Igaporã

Ilhéus

Serra do Espinhaço

Sete Gameleiras

Tamanduá Mirim

Tanque

Teiu

Ventos do Nordeste

Source: ANEEL

renewable sources connection to the grid
Renewable Sources Connection to the Grid
  • The connection to the bulk power system is made through Renewable Generators Collection System Sub-Grid (ICG)
  • The use of ICG and IEG represent a reduction in the grid connection costs, but also represents an engineering challenge...

Source: L. A. Barroso, F. Porrua, R. Chabar, M. V. Pereira and B. Bezerra, Incorporating Large-Scale Renewables to the Transmission Grid: Technical and Regulatory Issues - IEEE PES General Meeting 2009, Calgary, Canada

wind farms icg connection igapora ii icg
Wind Farms ICG Connection - Igapora II ICG
  • There are 13 wind farms connected to the Igapora II ICG
energetic complementarity of hidro wind and biomass
Energetic Complementarity of Hidro, Wind and Biomass

Reservoirs of hydro power plants and the transmission grid may be used to modulate the production of wind and sugarcane biomass plants (no back up natural gas generation is necessary as in other countries)

During the dry season, wind and biomass power plants may “return the favor” to hydro plants(functioning as a virtual reservoir)

slide20
Major Challenges for the Increase of Wind Generation Penetration Degree in the Brazilian Interconnected Power System
major challenges with high wind penetration degree
Major Challenges with High Wind Penetration Degree
  • The sites in Brazil with highest winds are located in the Northeast and Southern of Brazil. These regions are characterized by low short circuit ratio (SCR) and low inertia, often requiring network reinforcements for the correct performance of wind generators.
  • This also provokes different power flow patterns in the presence of high wind generation penetration degree - transmission systems must be adapted to this new paradigm.
  • Wind generators must be capable to participate in voltage control in weak networks efficiently, even when producing little or no active power at all.
  • The network must be prepared to handle a higher amount of generation loss, for example, when the wind in a given area reduces very fast.
  • Normally wind generation does not contribute to the inertia of the system.
slide22
Ongoing Improvements Necessary to Connect Wind Farms to Grids with High Wind Generation Penetration Degree
ongoing improvements for high wind penetration degree
Ongoing Improvements for High Wind Penetration Degree
  • Set Strategies for Power Reserves
  • With the increase of wind generation penetration degree, a strategy must be set, to create a power reserve in the case, for example, if the wind reduces in a fast way.
  • Scheduling and real time actions to maintain and restore system reserves.
  • Improved Wind Forecast
    • The improved wind forecast will allow a more precise Power Reserve calculation, reducing operation costs.
ongoing improvements for high wind penetration degree1
Ongoing Improvements for High Wind Penetration Degree
  • Improved Supervision of Wind Farms
  • Set supervision requirements to monitor wind geration production.
  • Need to set dispatch centers to concentrate operation communication among Power System Operator and wind plants groups.
  • Harmonic Distortion and Voltage Fluctuation
    • Implement electric energy quality indicators, mainly the ones for harmonic distortions and voltage fluctuation.
ongoing improvements for high wind penetration degree2
Ongoing Improvements for High Wind Penetration Degree
  • Install Wind Generators Improved Dynamic Performance
    • The technology utilized in wind generation is in fast evolution. This favors the secure increase of wind generation penetration degree in power systems.
    • The grid codes must also evolve to take advantage of this fast technology development, in order to ensure the dynamic performance needed to the increasing penetration of wind generation.
    • The technologies currently used in modern wind turbines are the Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) and Full-Converter.
grid codes technical requirements improvements
Grid Codes Technical Requirements Improvements
  • Off-nominal Frequency Operation
    • The wind generators must be capable to stay connected to the grid during system under/overfrequency disturbances. This requirement is specially important in underfrequency contingencies, when the outages of wind generators can compromise the correct operation of the load shedding scheme.
grid codes technical requirements improvements1
Grid Codes Technical Requirements Improvements
  • Reactive Power Control of Wind Farms
  • Regarding this technical requirement the DFIG and Full-Converters wind generator technology provides a much higher reactive power generation / absorption capacity than the specified by the Brazilian Grid Code.
  • The extended range that these two technologies allow, can improve voltage control of the system as a whole, enabling a higher penetration degree of wind generation.
grid codes technical requirements improvements2
Grid Codes Technical Requirements Improvements
  • Synthetic Inertia
  • Asynchronous machines, such as variable speed wind generators, do not contribute to the inertia of the system (the rotating masses are not electrically connected to the system).
  • This feature is currently under development by many wind generators manufacturers.
  • Particularly in the Northeast sub-system, where it is expected a high penetration degree of wind power in a region with low inertia, this feature may contribute to the security of the system, possibly improving the operation of load shedding scheme.
conclusions1
Conclusions
  • The connection of the large amount of wind generation in the BIPS predicted for this decade in a secure way is possible, since actions are taken from now on by all involved in the process.
  • A detailed review of the Brazilian Grid Code is being carried on in Brazilian System Operator - ONS, to include new technical requirements that the new wind generation technologies allow. The work is being carried by GT Eolica Task Force.
  • The control technologies available in DFIG and Full-Converter wind generators must be explored to its maximum to allow the safe operation of the system with high wind generation penetration degree.
  • The Brazilian Grid Code, as well as the technical requirements for next auctions, must reflect, and take into account, the performance improvement for the network that can be achieved with the use of the new wind generator technologies.
conclusions2
Conclusions
  • A careful network expansion planning must be done in a way to allow the safe connection of wind farms in areas of the system with low SCR and inertia. The most appropriate equipment to improve the performance of a system with these characteristics is the synchronous condenser.
  • The improvement in the wind forecast models is mandatory to become wind generation more predictable, and thus become the Power Reserve calculation more precise. This will impact directly in the reduction of operation costs.
  • Improvement in the centralized control wind generators in the wind farms to become the operation of the wind farms from the Control Center more friendly.