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Founding of Virginia. Methods of Colonization. Private Charters Humphrey Gilbert: Newfoundland (1578) Sir Walter Raleigh: Roanoke Island (1584-85, 1587) Reasons for Failure Joint Stock Companies (Corporate Colonies) Advantages England’s Chief Agency for Colonization

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methods of colonization
Methods of Colonization
  • Private Charters
  • Humphrey Gilbert: Newfoundland (1578)
  • Sir Walter Raleigh: Roanoke Island (1584-85, 1587)
  • Reasons for Failure
  • Joint Stock Companies (Corporate Colonies)
  • Advantages
  • England’s Chief Agency for Colonization
  • Virginia, Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay
establishing the colony
Establishing the Colony
  • Virginia Company of London (1607)
  • Motives for Settlement
  • Trade With Native Americans
  • Mining
  • Route to China
disastrous early years
Disastrous Early Years
  • High Mortality Rates
  • Old View: Famine
  • New View: Contaminated Water

Typhoid, Dysentery & Perhaps Salt

Poisoning

  • Starvation, 1609-10
  • Death Rates, 1607-24
why indians allowed virginians to survive
Why Indians Allowed Virginians to Survive
  • Powhatan Empire
  • Covered 8000 Square Miles
  • Contained 14,000 Native Americans
  • Powhatan Wantedto Trade

4. Convinced Settlers Would Die

Chief Powhatan

why did powhatan tribe fail
Why Did Powhatan Tribe Fail?
  • Settlers Badly Led, Often Starving
  • Powhatan Had Huge Empire and Better Organized

Chief Powhatan

ecological imperialism
Ecological Imperialism
  • Multilevel Ecological Assault
  • Tobacco, Honeybees & Domesticated Animals
  • Tobacco Growing Destroyed Nutrients in Soil Colonists Needed More & More Land
  • Honeybees Pollinated Orchards
  • Pigs, Goats, Cattle & Horses Trampled Indian Harvests

a. Pigs Ate Tuckahoe

  • Columbian Exchange
why no indian counterattack
Why No Indian Counterattack?
  • Underestimated Colonists’ Capacity for Survival
  • Colonists Made Landscape Inhospitable
  • Colonists Came from South And East England Brought Malaria With Them
  • Malaria Became Established in 1620s

Prevented Indians from Attacking

commercial success 1612 24
Commercial Success, 1612-24
  • Experiments With Export Commodities
  • Introduction of Tobacco From West Indies
  • Explosion of Tobacco Production
reforms introduced 1618
Reforms Introduced 1618
  • Problem Sustaining Population
  • Head Right System
  • High Fatality Rate Continued
  • Crown Investigation
  • Virginia Became First Royal Colony
  • Profits for Promoters?

Prisoners Await Transpor-

tation to North American

structure of colonial virginia i
Structure of Colonial Virginia I
  • Geographic Influences
  • Navigable Rivers
  • Rich Soil
  • Long, Hot Growing Season
  • Land Distribution System: Head Right System
  • Impact: Retarded Growth of Towns and Cities
structure of colonial virginia ii
Structure of Colonial Virginia II
  • Growth of Planter Elite Based on Tobacco
  • Basis of Work Force
  • Indentured Servants
  • Slavery Introduced on Large Scale First in 1670s and 1680s

William Byrd,

Virginia Planter