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Chapter 5 Fighting Disease. Section 1 Infectious Disease. Understanding Infectious Disease. When you have an infectious disease, pathogens have gotten inside your body and caused harm. Pathogen: Organisms that cause disease. Infectious Disease : Disease caused by the

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chapter 5 fighting disease

Chapter 5 Fighting Disease

Section 1 Infectious Disease

understanding infectious disease
Understanding Infectious Disease

When you have an infectious disease,

pathogens have gotten inside your body and

caused harm.

Pathogen: Organisms that cause disease.

Infectious Disease: Disease caused by the

presence of a living thing within the body.

understanding infectious disease1
Understanding Infectious Disease

Famous People 1860’s – 1880’s

Joseph Lister: British Surgeon hypothesized that microorganisms caused infections.

(washed his hands and equipment, what a brilliant man)

Louis Pasteur: Showed that microorganisms cause certain kinds of diseases. Killing microorganisms can prevent disease.

Robert Koch: demonstrated that each infectious disease is caused by a specific kind of pathogen.

kinds of pathogens
Kinds of Pathogens

There are 4 major groups of human pathogens.





kinds of pathogens1
Kinds of Pathogens

Bacteria: one-celled microorganisms, damage

Body cells directly, and indirectly through toxins.

Toxin: Poison, that attacks kills or damages cells.

kinds of pathogens3
Kinds of Pathogens

Viruses: tiny particles, much smaller than bacteria. Cannot reproduce unless they are inside a living cell.

Colds and Flu are caused by viruses.

Over 200 kinds.

Meds don’t work, body must kill with immune system.

kinds of pathogens5
Kinds of Pathogens


molds and yeast

grows in warm, dark, and moist areas.

Examples: athlete’s foot and ringworm.

kinds of pathogens7
Kinds of Pathogens

Protists: eukaryotic organisms unicellular, and multicellular organisms, such as the protozoans, slime molds, brown algae, and red algae.



African Sleeping Sickness

Amebic Dysentery

how pathogens are spread
How Pathogens Are Spread

Pathogens can spread through contact with:

Infected person




Contaminated object

Infected animal

chapter 5 fighting disease1

Chapter 5 Fighting Disease

Section 2 The Body’s Defenses

barriers that keep pathogens out
Barriers That Keep Pathogens Out

First line of Defense:

Surfaces of Skin

Breathing Passages



These barriers trap and kill most all pathogens

that try to enter the body.

barriers that keep pathogens out1
Barriers That Keep Pathogens Out


Chemicals in oil and sweat

Fall off with dead skin

Tightly lined skin cells

Normally enters through skin cuts

barriers that keep pathogens out2
Barriers That Keep Pathogens Out

Breathing Passages:

Contain mucus and cilia

Sneeze and Cough

barriers that keep pathogens out3
Barriers That Keep Pathogens Out

Mouth & Stomach:

Saliva contains destructive chemicals

Acid in stomach

the inflammatory response
The Inflammatory Response

In the inflammatory response, fluid and white

blood cells leak from blood vessels into nearby

tissues. The white blood cells then fight the


the inflammatory response1
The Inflammatory Response

White Blood Cells

Phagocyte: white blood cell that engulfs

pathogens and destroys them by breaking them


the inflammatory response2
The Inflammatory Response


Blood vessels widen

Bigger area faster response

Extra fluid, creates a swollen area

the inflammatory response3
The Inflammatory Response


Chemicals produce fever

Increased temp restricts infections ability

to spread reproduce & grow.

the immune system
The Immune System

The cells of the immune system can

distinguish between different kinds of

pathogens. The immune system cells

React to each kind of pathogen with a

defense targeted specifically at that


the immune system1
The Immune System

T Cell

To identify pathogens and distinguish one

kind of pathogen form another.

the immune system2
The Immune System

B Cell

Produces proteins that help destroy


Antibodies: are made for specific

antigens, marks them for death.


Disease caused by the virus, HIV.

HIV is the only kind of virus known to

attack the human immune system

directly and destroy T cells.

chapter 5 fighting disease2

Chapter 5 Fighting Disease

Section 3 Preventing Infectious Disease

active immunity
Active Immunity

Immunity: The body’s ability to

Destroy pathogens before they can

cause disease.

active immunity1
Active Immunity

Active Immunity: Your own immune

system produces antibodies in

response to the presence of a pathogen.

active immunity2
Active Immunity

The Immune Response

T cells and B cells keep the “memory” of how to destroy pathogens that have all ready entered the body.

This response can last for life.

active immunity3
Active Immunity


The process by which harmless antigens are deliberately introduced into a person’s body to produce active immunity.

Vaccine: consists of pathogens that have been weakened or killed but can still trigger the immune system.

active immunity4
Active Immunity

When You Do Get Sick

Antibiotic: chemical that kills bacteria or slows their growth with out harming body cells.

Nothing you can take for a viral infection.

passive immunity
Passive Immunity

Passive Immunity

A person acquires passive immunity when the antibodies that fight the pathogen come from a source other than the person’s body.

chapter 5 fighting disease3

Chapter 5 Fighting Disease

Section 4 Noninfectious Disease

noninfectious disease
Noninfectious Disease

Diseases that are not caused by pathogens in the body.

Can not be transmitted from person to person.


An allergy develops in response to various

foreign substances that set off a series of

reactions in the body.

Allergens: A substance that causes an


Histamine: a chemical that is responsible

For the symptoms of an allergy, such as

Sneezing and watery eyes.



A disorder in which the respiratory passages narrow significantly.

Can be brought on by stress and exercise.


High levels of glucose in the blood and may even excrete glucose in the urine. The person’s body cells, however, do not have enough glucose.

Insulin: enables body cell to take in glucose from the blood and use it for energy.

effect of diabetes
Effect of Diabetes

Short-Term Effects:

Weight loss

Feeling weak

Hungry all the time

Feeling thirsty

Long-term Effects:


Kidney Failure

Heart Disease

forms of diabetes
Forms of Diabetes

Type I

Begins in childhood or early adulthood

Pancreas produces little or no insulin

Type II

Develops during adulthood

Pancreas does not make enough insulin, or body cells do not respond normally to insulin

Control through proper diet, and exercise.


A disease in which cells multiply uncontrollably, over and over, destroying healthy tissue in the process.


How Cancer Develops

Tumors: Cells dividing out of control, not all tumors are cancerous. Cancer cells break off and destroy healthy tissue.

Blood and Lymph vessels can carry cancer cells around the body for new tumors to form.


Causes of Cancer

Tumors: Cells dividing out of control, not all tumors are cancerous. Cancer cells break off and destroy healthy tissue.

Blood and Lymph vessels can carry cancer cells around the body for new tumors to form.


Cancer Treatment

Surgery: Removal

Drugs: Use of chemicals to destroy cancer cells.

Radiation: High-energy waves to kill cancer cells, in specific spots.


Cancer Prevention

Avoid Carcinogens

Low-Fat Diet

Regular Checkups… Catch it early

chapter 5 fighting disease4

Chapter 5 Fighting Disease

Section 5 Cancer and the Environment

linking cancer to the environment
Linking Cancer to the Environment

First Studies


Chimney Sweeps

Skin Cancer

linking cancer to the environment1
Linking Cancer to the Environment

A Link Between Soot and Cancer


Carcinogens in soot

Same stuff in in the tar of cigarette smoke

linking cancer to the environment2
Linking Cancer to the Environment

Carcinogens in the Environment

The environment many contain carcinogens. To reduce the risk of cancer, carcinogens need to be removed or people need to be protected from them. (EPA)

environmental carcinogens today
Environmental Carcinogens Today

Ultraviolet Light

Skin Cancer

Ozone going away

environmental carcinogens today1
Environmental Carcinogens Today

Vinyl Chloride

Colorless gas

PVC – plastic products

pipes, coating for wires, packaging, upholstery, house wares, car parts.

Liver, brain, lung cancer

environmental carcinogens today2
Environmental Carcinogens Today


Naturally Occurs in soil and rock

Wood Preservative

(CCA) pressure treat

Liver, Bladder, Kidney, and Lung cancer