What are Soft Tissues? • Soft tissues are the layers that protect underlying body structures. • Types of soft tissues: • Skin • Epidermis • Dermis • Hypodermis • Fatty Tissue • Muscle
Types of Soft Tissue Injuries • Burns • First Degree (Affect only outer layer of skin). • Second and Third Degree (Damage all layers of skin). • Closed Wounds • Bruises and Contusions • Open Wound • Abrasion • Laceration • Avulsion • Puncture
Caring for a Soft Tissue Injury • Preventing Infection • For minor wounds wash with soap and water. • Peroxide and Iodine • Immunization • Control Bleeding • http://www.instructorscorner.org/media/resources/eccu/eccu_videos_201601/External_Bleeding_Adult_FINAL.mp4 • Dressings • Occlusive Dressing • Bandages • Pressure • Adhesive Compress • Roller • Elastic Roller • Triangular
Caring for Wounds • Care for a Closed Wound • Elevate injury. • Apply cold. • Care for a Open Wound • Put on gloves. • Control bleeding. • Apply a dressing and bandage. • Get victim to hospital. • Prevent infection. • Minimize shock by keeping the victim from getting chilled or overheated. • Get the victim to a hospital. • http://www.instructorscorner.org/media/videos/k28.html
Caring for a Burn • Updated 2016: Don’t apply ice directly to a burn; it can produce tissue ischemia • Updated 2016: Cool thermal burns with cool or cold potable water ASAP for 10 minutes • Updated 2016: If cool or cold water isn’t available, a clean cool or cold (not freezing) compress can be useful • Updated 2016: After cooling a burn, it may be reasonable to loosely cover the burn with a sterile, dry dressing • Updated 2016: Burns associated with or involving blistering/broken, difficulty breathing, etc. should see a medical professional. • http://www.instructorscorner.org/media/videos/k30.html
Special Situations • Chemical Burns • Remove the chemicals from the body ASAP. • Call EMS • Electrical Burns • Updated 2016: Call EMS immediately • Updated 2016: turn off the power of the source • Electricity can make the heart and respiration stop.
Summary • Caring for Wounds • Wear gloves. • Control bleeding and minimize risk of infection. • Get victim to hospital. • Caring for Burns • Heat, chemicals and electricity will cause burns. • Wear gloves, provide initial care, get victim to a hospital.
Frostbite and Hypothermia (2016) • Frostbite and hypothermia are cold-related emergencies that may quickly become life or limb threatening. • Prevention is key! • Don’t start an activity in, on, or around cold water unless you know you can get help quickly in an emergency. • Be aware of the wind chill. • Dress appropriately and avoid staying in the cold too long. Wear a hat and gloves with layers of clothing. • Drink plenty of warm fluids or warm water but avoid caffeine and alcohol. • Stay active to maintain body heat. • Take frequent breaks from the cold. • Avoid unnecessary exposure of any part of the body to the cold. • Get out of the cold immediately if the signals of hypothermia or frostbite appear.
Frostbite (2016) • Frostbite is the freezing of a specific body part – most common are: fingers, toes, nose, ears, cheeks and chin. • Frostnip – minor or superficial frostbite. • Because of numbness, you may not realize you have frostbite. • Signs of frostbite: • lack of feeling in the affected area • skin that appears waxy • skin is cold to the touch or is discolored (flushed, white or gray, yellow or blue).
Treating Frostbite/Frostnip (2016) • Move the person to a warm place. • Remove wet clothing; dry and cover victim (prevent hypothermia). • Handle the area gently; never rub the affected area. • Warm gently by soaking the affected area in warm water (100–105 degrees F) until it appears red and feels warm. • DO NOT use chemical warmers – may cause burns. • Loosely bandage the area with dry, sterile dressings.
Treating Frostbite/Frostnip (2016) • If the person’s fingers or toes are frostbitten, place dry, sterile gauze between them to keep them separated. • Avoid breaking any blisters. • Do not allow the affected area to refreeze (do not rewarm if any chance it might refreeze or you are close to medical facility). • Seek professional medical care as soon as possible.
Jellyfish Stings(2016) • You want to: • Prevent any further discharge from stingers • Pain relief • Treatment to remove stingers • Rinse area with vinegar ASAP for at least 30 seconds. If vinegar not available, use baking soda mixed with water (paste) • MYTH: urinate on the affected area • FACT: urine will cause further stings and pain! • Immerse in hot water/hot shower for at least 20 minutes or as long as pain persists • No pressure bandages – these will release more venom!