Download
apache velocity a java template engine n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Apache Velocity A Java Template Engine PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Apache Velocity A Java Template Engine

Apache Velocity A Java Template Engine

697 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Apache Velocity A Java Template Engine

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Apache VelocityA Java Template Engine • Nathan Bubna • nbubna@apache.org, • Henning P. Schmiedehausen • hps@intermeta.de • OSCON 2007, July 25th 2007 • Portland, Oregon • http://people.apache.org/~nbubna/oscon2007

  2. Template Engine? • Defines a simple language(VTL – Velocity Template Language) • Templates are text containing active elements • Active elements are replaced with values from the model • No “industry standard” template language • Templates are processed, not compiled

  3. Velocity Background • Velocity was started in 2000 • One of the first Jakarta projects • ASF-licensed alternative to WebMacro • Language syntax is similar and still very stable • 100% Pure Java (runs on Java 1.3 or better) • Velocity became an Apache TLP in 2006 • Current release is 1.5 (as of March ’07)

  4. Velocity Spotting • Velocity is integrated with many other projects (Turbine, Struts 2, Maven…) and others (http://wiki.apache.org/velocity/PoweredByVelocity) • Support for IDEs and Editors available (e.g. Eclipse, IntelliJ IDEA, emacs…) (http://wiki.apache.org/velocity/VelocityEditors) • Response content in webapp frameworks (e.g. Struts, Turbine) • Code generation (e.g. Torque, MyEclipse) • Documentation (e.g. Maven, Anakia) • Email (e.g. Spring)

  5. Velocity vs JSP • Easier to test • No servlet container required • Better separation of code and design • No compilation into Java code • Few, easy to learn language elements • No embedded Java code! • Easy on the eyes

  6. Real Template Engines • perl: HTML-Template, Mason • php: Smarty, SmartTemplate, TinyButStrong • Ruby: Galena, LiquidRuby • Python: QuickSilver, Cheetah, TurboGears, Airspeed • Java: WebMacro, FreeMarker, Apache Velocity

  7. Velocity Template Language • Simple constructs • #directive() (line directives) • #directive() … #end (block directives) • $reference or ${reference} • Embedded directly into template files(no open / close tags like JSP or PHP) • References are “loosely typed” • VTL can be learned in minutes

  8. Assignments - #set() • #set is used to create or update a reference • #set( $foo = “text” ) String value • #set( $foo = 100 ) Numeric value • #set( $foo = [ 1, 2, 3 ] ) Array • #set( $foo = { 1 : 2, 3 : 4 } ) Map • #set( $foo = $bar ) Reference • #set( $foo = $bar.foo ) Bean Property • #set( $foo = $bar.doFoo() ) Method Result

  9. Demo #1 - References • #set( $message = ’Hello World’ ) • This is a Velocity “$message” program. • #set( $favorite = 137 ) • My favorite number is not $favorite.

  10. Display Control Elements • Loop • #foreach( $foo in $bars ) ... #end • Conditional • #if ( ) … #elseif ( ) … #else … #end • Inclusion of external elements • #include( ) Load external file • #parse( ) Load and parse file

  11. Demo #2 - Loops • #set( $list = [ ‘a’, ‘b’, ‘c’, ‘d’ ] ) • #foreach($alpha in $list ) • The current letter is $alpha • #end • Let’s count #foreach($i in [ 1..10 ])$i#end

  12. Demo #3 - Conditionals • #if( $speaker eq ‘Henning’ )##Use german • Hallo Welt! • #elseif( $hello ) • $hello • #else #*Use default greeting*# • Hi World! • #end

  13. Macros • Builds a block directive on the fly • Create: #macro (name) … #end • Use: #name() … #end • Velocity supports global and local scope • Technically some sort of “method call” (please don’t use it like this) • For factoring out common template code/content

  14. Macros • Macros can take parameters • Create: • #macro( name $arg $arg2 ) …$arg…$arg2…#end • Use: • #name( $foo $bar ) … #end • Arbitrary number of parameters possible • Number of call parameters must match definition!

  15. Demo #4 - Macros • #macro( quote $value )"$value"#end • We use a macro to quote #quote( 'this phrase' ).

  16. Reference Syntax & Evaluation • A $reference represents a Java object • Use a${formalReference}to avoid parsing ambiguities • $!ref or $!{ref} means “be quiet when null”(do not confuse with !$reference) • Evaluation always invokes toString()method

  17. Velocity Miscellany • A range operator exists • #set ($foo = [ 1..100 ]) List of integers 1 to 100 • Arithmetic (both integer and floating point) • #set ($foo = 1.5 + 2 ) $foo is now 3.5 • +, -, /, *, % • Boolean operators for conditionals • !, &&, ||, ==, <=, <, >, >= • not, and, or, eq, ne, gt, ge, lt, le • For == and !=, if the operands are not of the same class, their toString() values are compared • String interpolation for #set(), macro args and method args • #set( $foo = “foo was $foo” ) $foo is now “foo was 3.5”

  18. Velocity Context • The Context is the means of importing values into the template • It is essentially a map of reference identifiers (i.e. the “foo” in ${foo}) to Java objects • All access to data in the template comes this way • There is no “natural” or “native” way to access or create Java objects

  19. Demo – Using A Context • public static void main(String [] args) throws Exception { • VelocityEngine engine = new VelocityEngine(); • VelocityContext context = new VelocityContext(); • context.put(“speaker", “Nathan”); • context.put("hello", "Hello World!"); • Template template = engine.getTemplate(args[0]); • StringWriter out = new StringWriter(); • template.merge(context, out); • System.out.println(out.toString()); • }

  20. Interacting With Context Objects • The real power of Velocity • All public methods in public classes are available • All works via runtime reflection • Shortcut notation for property access ($a.b vs $a.getB()) • Type promotion as Java does • Method parameters can not be omitted!(this is not perl!)

  21. VelocityTools • A “tool” is just a context object that is “useful” in a template • Collection of useful Java classes. • Comes in three flavors: • GenericTools All-purpose tools • VelocityView Tools and more for webapps • VelocityStruts Velocity as Struts View layer • Other “tools” out there on the web

  22. VelocityView • VelocityViewServlet renders arbitrary Templates through web.xml mapping • Configuration of tools with an XML based configuration file • Different tool scopes/lifecycles possible(application, session, request) • Request, Session, Response and ServletContext objects and their attributes are available automatically

  23. Advanced Velocity • Custom directives possible (org.apache.velocity.runtime.directive.Directive) • Multiple Resource loaders to load templates from different sources(files, classpath, jars, database, remote URLs) • Event Handlers for Exception handling, XML escaping, etc • Custom Introspector for method and property access possible

  24. Advanced Velocity • Velocity Template Language (VTL) is defined in JavaCC grammar • VTL itself can be changed or extended(needs recompilation of velocity.jar) • More “Advanced Velocity“ at http://wiki.apache.org/velocity/HackingVelocityincluding the excellent ApacheCon 2004 session slides by Will Glass-Husain

  25. Demo #5 - VelocityView • Uses VelocityTools 2.0 (only alpha release available) • VelocityViewServlet does the work • Uses LinkTool, ParameterTool, EscapeTool • (aka $link, $params, and $esc) • One custom tool: AddressBook is a ~30 line POJO • One template: index.vm is just ~50 lines • ~20 lines of config (including web.xml)

  26. Velocity with Struts 1.x • VelocityTools provides Struts tools for integration • Seamless, not mutually exclusive with JSP • (Image from http://velocity.apache.org/tools/devel/struts/!)

  27. Velocity with Struts 1.x • ActionMessagesTool - Action Messages • ErrorsTool - Error Messages • FormTool - Forms handling • MessageTool - i18n Message Support • StrutsLinkTool,SecureLinkTool - Links • TilesTool - Struts-Tiles Framework • ValidatorTool - Validator Framework

  28. Velocity with Turbine • Preferred View Layer of Turbine • No separate Servlet • Turbine fully integrates Velocity • Turbine provides infrastructure • Tools • Template Loaders • Configuration and Logging

  29. Velocity with… • Velocity is supported as a first-class view layer in • Struts 2.x (uses custom directives instead of tools) • Spring MVC (also supports VelocityTools 1.x well) • Click (http://click.sourceforge.net/) • Restlet (http://www.restlet.org/) • Mentawai (http://www.mentaframework.org/) • And at least a dozen others… • (http://wiki.apache.org/velocity/PoweredByVelocity)

  30. Other Velocity Uses • Texen for generic text generation • Anakia for XML to documentation • Torque – generate Java and SQL code • VelocityViewTag – Easily embed Velocity in JSP • (Part of the upcoming VelocityTools 2.0) • Velosurf – Tool for abstracting database interaction

  31. Any questions?

  32. Where to go from here? • Velocity Homepage • http://velocity.apache.org/ • Velocity Mailing Lists • http://velocity.apache.org/contact.html • Velocity Wiki • http://wiki.apache.org/velocity/ • These Slides and Demo Code • http://people.apache.org/~nbubna/oscon2007 • Velocity 1.5 Release Notes • http://wiki.apache.org/jakarta-velocity/Velocity15ReleaseNotes

  33. Thanks for your attention!