TOWARDS p-ADIC GENOMICS - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  1. TOWARDS p-ADIC GENOMICS Branko Dragovich Institute of Physics, Belgrade Alexandra Dragovich Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Moscow 3rd International Conference on p-Adic Mathematical Physics 1-6. 10.2007, Moscow

  2. Sun: 5 billon y, Earth: 4.6 billion y, Life: 3 billion y

  3. Cell Structure

  4. DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) Crick and Watson (1953)

  5. Francis Crick James Watson

  6. Base pairing

  7. RNA (Ribonucleic acid)

  8. Genomics is the study of the genome, which is whole information encoded in DNA.

  9. Nucleotides (bases) and codons Nucleotides: C, A, U (T), G Codons: ordered trinucleotides 4 x 4 x 4 = 64 codons

  10. Amino acids

  11. (Universal) Genetic Code

  12. Modeling of the Genetic Code • Gamov (1954), Crick (1957), Rumer (1966), … • Swanson (1984), … • J. Hornos and Y. Hornos (1993), Forger and Sachse (2000) • Frappat, Sciarrino and Sorba (1998) • p-Adic approach: B. Dragovich and A. Dragovich (2006), Khrennikov (2006) and Kozyrev (2007), Bradley (2007)

  13. p-adic codon space: p-Adic Modeling of the Genetic Code C (cytosine) = 1, A (adenine) = 2, T (thymine) = U (uracil) = 3, G (guanine) = 4 ( 0 = absence of nucleotide )

  14. Our Table of Vertebral Mitochondrial Code

  15. p-Adic Properties of the Vertebral Mitochondrial Code • T-symmetry: doublets-doublets and quadruplets-quadruplets invariance • 5-Adic distance gives quadruplets • 2-Adic distance inside quadruplets gives doublets • Degeneration of the genetic code has p-adic structure • p-Adic degeneracy principle: Codons code amino acids and stop signals by doublets which are result of combined 5-adic and 2-adic distances • Modern assignment of codon doublets to particular amino acids is a result of coevolution of the genetic code and amino acids: single nucleotide code – 4 amino acids, dinucleotide code – 16 amino acids, trinucleotide code 20 amino acids. • Other (15) codes may be regarded as slight modifications of the Vertebral Mitochondrial Code

  16. P-Adic Genomic Space where Definition: (p, q)-adic genomic space is a double is a set of natural numbers, and is q-adic distance.

  17. Examples of p-Adic Genomic Spaces • 1-nucleotide codon space: p=5, m =1 • 2-nucleotide codon space: p=5, m =2 • 3-nucleotide codon space: p=5, m =3 • present space of amino acids: p=23, m=1 • future space of amino acids: p=29, m=1 • first space of amino acids: p=5, m=1 • second space of amino acids: p=17, m=1

  18. Conclusion • Space of nucleotides is p-adic • Space of codons is p-adic • Genetic code has p-adic degeneration • Genomic spaces (spaces of nucleotides, codons, DNA, RNA, amino acids, proteins) have p-1 structural units, where p = prime number. There is p-adics in genomics!