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AP World History: Between the Wars. Period 6 . I The Roaring 20s?. A) Postwar inflation occurred as governments printed new money. B) The United States’ and Japan’s economy and culture boomed in the 1920’s. 1. In the US , art and science benefited from new ideas after the war.

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i the roaring 20s
I The Roaring 20s?

A) Postwar inflation occurred as governments printed new money.

B) The United States’ and Japan’s economy and culture boomed in the 1920’s.

1. In the US, art and science benefited from new ideas after the war.

2. In the US, new mass consumerism and popular culture was important (flappers; radio; films; jazz; the Harlem Renaissance).

C) The US entered a period of isolation after refusing to enter the League of Nations.

D) In 1919 Germany’s new democratic government (Weimar Republic) replaced the imperial government originally put in place.

E) Kellogg-Briand Pact of 1928:  renounced the use of war and called for the peaceful settlement of disputes.

the roaring 20s continued1
The Roaring 20s? Continued…

The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) was founded in 1909, advocating for racial equality. One of the founders was W.E.B. DuBois.

Hyperinflation in the Weimar Republic, Germany

the kellogg briand pact 1928
The Kellogg-Briand Pact 1928


Deeply sensible of their solemn duty to promote the welfare of mankind;

Persuaded that the time has, come when a frank renunciation of war as an instrument of national policy should be made to the end that the peaceful and friendly relations now existing between their peoples may be perpetuated…

Do you think the intentions of the signers was to sincerely prevent war? How many of the signers were responsible for the Treaty of Versailles?

ii the great depression 1929 1933
II The Great Depression 1929 - 1933

A) WWI devastated European economies; Germany was unable to make reparations payments, and Britain and France unable to repay their war debts to the US.

B) Employment in key sectors (coal, iron, textiles) began to decline due to less demand postwar.

C) October 1929 the New York Stock Market crashed. Investors were building up high debt because of easy credit; when the stock market crashed, banks had already been collapsing, people pulled their money and the crisis snowballed.

D) Unemployment and lower wages in the US, Germany, Britain, and Latin America. Western luxury purchases declined; hurt Japanese and Chinese economies.

E) Dust Bowl of 1930s: period of severe dust storms and droughts in the US prairies.

F) When the government failed to provide relief, President Herbert Hoover (1874-1964) was blamed for the intolerable economic and social conditions, and the shantytowns that cropped up across the nation, primarily on the outskirts of major cities, became known as Hoovervilles. The highly unpopular Hoover, a Republican, was defeated in the 1932 presidential election by Democrat Franklin Roosevelt (1882-1945),

iii fdr s new deal 1933 1938
III FDR’s New Deal 1933 - 1938

A) Most governments tried to cut spending and many raised tariffs which worsened the Depression.

B) Some governments turned to fascism; i.e. Italy, Germany.

C) In contrast, Franklin D. Roosevelt offered his “New Deal” It offered more direct aid to Americans through increased unemployment benefits and jobs on public works projects. It stimulated the American economy and restored faith in the government. The New Deal emphasized the economic principle of the American System as devised by Alexander Hamilton, namely that a successful economy is predicated upon physical development (government based industry, infrastructure, high level research and development and agriculture), as opposed to monetary speculation.

New Deal “Top Ten” Programs

CCC - Civilian Conservation Corps 1933 Created to combat unemployment. The CCC was responsible for building many public works and created structures and trails in parks across the nation.

2. CWA - Civil Works Administration 1933 Purpose to create jobs for the unemployed. Its focus on high paying jobs in the construction arena resulted in a much greater expense to the federal government than originally anticipated. The CWA ended in 1934 in large part due to opposition to its cost.

3. FHA - Federal Housing Administration A government agency created to combat the housing crisis of the Great Depression. The large number of unemployed workers combined with the banking crisis created a situation in which banks recalled loans. The FHA was designed to regulate mortgages and housing conditions.

fdr s new deal top 10 continued
FDR’s New Deal “Top 10” Continued…

4. FSA - Federal Security Agency 1939. Had the responsibility for several important government entities. Until it was abolished in 1953, it administered social security, federal education funding, and food and drug safety.

5. HOLC - Home Owner's Loan Corporation 1933. To assist in the refinancing of homes. The housing crisis created a great many foreclosures, and Franklin Roosevelt hoped this new agency would stem the tide. Between 1933 and 1935 one million people received long term loans through the agency that saved their homes from foreclosure.

6. NRA - National Recovery Act Designed to bring the interests of working class Americans and business together. Through hearings and government intervention the hope was to balance the needs of all involved in the economy. However, the NRA was declared unconstitutional in the landmark Supreme Court case Schechter Poultry Corp. v. US. The Supreme Court ruled that the NRA violated the separation of powers.

7. PWA - Public Works Administration A program created to provide economic stimulus and jobs during the Great Depression. The PWA was designed to create public works and continued until the US ramped up wartime production for World War II. It ended in 1941.

8. SSA - Social Security Act Designed to combat the widespread poverty among senior citizens. The government program provided income to retired wage earners. The program has become one of the most popular government programs and is funded by current wage earners and their employers. However, in recent years concerns have arisen about the viability of continuing to fund the program as the Baby Boom generation reaches retirement age.

9. TVA - Tennessee Valley Authority 1933 To develop the economy in the Tennessee Valley region which had been hit extremely hard by the Great Depression. The TVA was and is a federally owned corporation that works in this region to this day. It is the largest public provider of electricity in the United States.

10. WPA - Works Progress Administration 1935As the largest New Deal Agency, the WPA impacted millions of Americans. It provided jobs across the nation. Because of it, numerous roads, buildings, and other projects were completed. It was renamed the Works Projects Administration in 1939. It officially ended in 1943.

iv the mexican revolution 1910 1920
IV The Mexican Revolution 1910 -1920

A) The Mexican Revolution broke out in 1910 when the decades-old rule of President Porfirio Díaz was challenged by Francisco Madero, a reformist writer and politician. When Díaz refused to allow clean elections, Madero's calls for revolution were answered by Emiliano Zapata in the south and Pascual Orozco and Pancho Villa in the north.

B) Díaz was deposed in 1911, but the revolution was just beginning. By the time it was over, millions had died as rival politicians and warlords fought each other over the cities and regions of Mexico.

C) By 1920, chickpea farmer and revolutionary general Alvaro Obregónhad risen to the presidency, primarily by outliving his main rivals. Most historians feel that this event marks the end of the revolution, although the violence continued well into the 1920s.

Francisco Madero

Emiliano Zapata

Pascual Orozco

Pancho Villa

v latin american nationalism
V Latin American Nationalism
  • The Great Depression led to people losing faith in liberal governments, and rejected European influences. Led to a revival of mural paintings, an Aztec and Mayan art form.
  • The US continued to enforce the Monroe Doctrine and intervened into Latin American affairs until….
  • FDR’s Good Neighbor Policypledged to lessen the US’s involvement in Latin America.
vi revolution in russia
VI Revolution in Russia
  • Czar Alexander II “officially” ended serfdom in Russia in 1861.
  • By 1917, most Russians had lost faith in the leadership ability of Czar Nicholas II. More Russians died in WWI than any previous war, government corruption was rampant, the economy remained backward, and Nicholas repeatedly dissolved the Duma, the Russian parliament established after the 1905 revolution, when it opposed his will.
  • The February Revolution (known as such because of Russia’s use of the Julian calendar until February 1918) began on March 8, 1917 (or February 23 on the Julian calendar), when demonstrators clamoring for bread took to the streets in Petrograd(now called St. Petersburg).
  • On March 11, Petrograd troops were called to quell the uprising. That day, Nicholas again dissolved the Duma. On March 12, the revolution triumphed when many Petrograd troops defected to the cause of the demonstrators.
  • The imperial government was forced to resign, and the Duma formed a provisional government that peacefully vied with the Petrograd Soviet for control of the revolution.

E) March 15, Czar Nicholas II abdicated the throne in favor of his brother Michael (1878-1918), whose refusal of the crown brought an end to the czarist autocracy.

revolution in russia continued
Revolution in Russia Continued…

F) In the aftermath of the February Revolution, power was shared between the weak provisional government and the Petrograd Soviet. Then, on November 6 and 7, 1917 (or October 24 and 25 on the Julian calendar, which is why this event is also referred to as the October Revolution), leftist revolutionaries led by Bolshevik Party leader Vladimir Lenin launched a nearly bloodless coup d’état against the provisional government. The Bolsheviks and their allies occupied government buildings and other strategic locations in Petrograd, and soon formed a new government with Lenin as its head.

G) Lenin became the dictator of the first Marxist state in the world. His government made peace with Germany, nationalized industry and distributed land, but beginning in 1918 had to fight a civil war against anti-Bolshevik White Army forces. In 1920, the anti-Bolsheviks were defeated, and in 1922 the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was established.

H) 1920 Lenin instituted his New Economic Policy, which allowed a great deal of private ownership to exist under a centralized leadership. The plan brought relative prosperity to farmers, but many farmers were against the modernization required to successfully implement this program.

“Bourgeois society ought long ago to have gone to the dogs through sheer idleness; for those of its members who work, acquire nothing, and those who acquire anything, do not work… Let the ruling classes tremble at a Communist revolution. The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains. They have a world to win. Working men of all countries, unite!”

― Karl Marx, The Communist Manifesto

lenin at the october revolution
Lenin at the October Revolution

“The oppressed are allowed once every few years to decide which particular representatives of the oppressing class are to represent them and repress them in parliament.” –Vladimir Lenin

revolution in russia continued1
Revolution in Russia Continued…
  • Lenin died in 1924; led to a struggle for power between Leon Trotskyand Joseph Stalin. Trotsky believed that the Communist Party's first responsibility was to spread socialist revolutions around the world. Stalin believed that the Party should promote internal development instead. When Stalin won control, he announced that Russia must industrialize quickly and thoroughly, accomplishing in a few years what Western European nations and the United States had taken many years to do.

J) Stalin replaced the New Economic Policy with collective farmsthat were state run and supposedly more efficient. Private land ownership was done away with, and the farms were intended to feed workers in the cities who contributed to the industrialization of the nation. Those who resisted were forced to move to cities or to labor camps, often in Siberia, if not killed.

K) With the agricultural surplus from the farms, Stalin established his first Five Year Plan, which set ambitious goals for production of heavy industry, such as oil, steel, and electricity. The government decided what, how and how much was produced, as well as who would be the recipients, over the course of a 5 year period.

revolution in russia continued2
Revolution in Russia Continued…

Leon Trotsky

Joseph Stalin

stalin s 5 year plan
Stalin’s 5 Year Plan

A gulag; a Siberian Labor Camp

collectivization and famine in ukraine
Collectivization and Famine in Ukraine

Ukraine was considered the “breadbasket” of Russia; the majority of Ukrainians were farmers. Among those farmers were “Kulaks”; formerly wealthy farmers that had owned 24 or more acres, or had employed farm workers. Stalin believed any future insurrection would be led by the Kulaks, thus he proclaimed them "enemies of the people“. Millions were thrown out of their homes and deported to Siberia, with up to a third of them perishing amid the frigid living conditions. Many farmers rebelled; they burned their own homes rather than surrender them, took back their property, and attacked local Soviet authorities. Soviet troops and secret police were rushed in to put down the rebellion. GPU squads systematically attacked and killed uncooperative farmers. By mid 1932, nearly 75 percent of the farms in the Ukraine had been forcibly collectivized. On Stalin's orders, mandatory quotas of foodstuffs to be shipped out to the Soviet Union were drastically increased in 1933, until there was simply no food remaining to feed the people of the Ukraine. Much of Ukraine’s wheat crop that year was dumped on the foreign market to generate cash to aid Stalin's Five Year Plan. The Soviets then sealed off the borders of the Ukraine, preventing any food from entering. Mothers in the countryside sometimes tossed their emaciated children onto passing railroad cars traveling toward cities such as Kiev in the hope someone there would take pity. But in the cities, children and adults who had already flocked there from the countryside were dropping dead in the streets, with their bodies carted away in horse-drawn wagons to be dumped in mass graves.. By the end of 1933, nearly 25 percent of the population of the Ukraine, including three million children, had perished. Stalin allowed food distribution to resume inside the Ukraine and the famine subsided. http://www.historyplace.com/worldhistory/genocide/stalin.htm

vii revolution in china
VII Revolution in China
  • The Opium Wars forced opening of “treaty ports” for international trade, and the loss of Hong Kong to Britain. After its loss in the Sino-Japanese War (1894–95), China lost Taiwan, Manchuria, and its influence over Korea.
  • The last Qing (Manchu) rulers: Manchu Empress Dowager Cixi (1835-1908) ruled the Qing Dynasty 1861-1908. Puyi (1906 – 1967) became the last Chinese emperor at the age of 2 in 1908.
  • As Qing rule fell into decline, it made a few last-ditch efforts at constitutional reform. In 1905, the court abolished the civil service examination system, it worked to modernize its military, and attempted a limited decentralization of power, creating elected assemblies and increasing provincial self-government.
  • Sun Yat-Sen(1867 – 1925) was a nationalist revolutionary; he believed the Manchu Dynasty was corrupt. He toured the US and Europe to raise money for his “Save China League”. He believed in 3 Principles: Democracy, Nationalism, and Livelihood.
  • October 1911 a republican-minded army unit mutinied in Wuchang, sparking a revolution. The catalyst was a Qing decision to nationalize two privately-owned railways in central China. By the end of 1911 nationalists began assembling to form a new government, led by Sun Yat-sen (who was not in China when the revolution happened). Sun Yat-sen reached a compromise with the powerful military leader Yuan Shikai, who forced the abdication of the infant emperor Puyi.
revolution in china continued
Revolution in China Continued…

The Last Emperor, Puyi

“Make me unhappy for a day and I will make you unhappy for a lifetime.” – Empress Dowager Cixi

revolution in china continued1
Revolution in China Continued…

Beheaded Chinese Rebel Leaders, 1911

Yuan Shikai

Sun Yat-Sen

revolution in china continued2
Revolution in China Continued…

F) With money from foreign banks (Britain, France, Russia, Germany, and Japan) Yuan Shikai bought the loyalty of local officials and the army. Sun Yat-Sen attempted to overthrow Shikai but failed due to lack of resources. He fled China for Japan.

G) March 1914 a new constitution was signed, giving Shikai dictatorial powers. His government used press censorship and surveillance of mail.

H) 1914 Japan invaded China. In January 1915, Japan presented Shikaiwith its Twenty-one Demands: mining and railway privileges; Japan should share in China's iron and steel industries; China must promise not to cede or lease to a third power any harbor, bay or island along its coast; accept Japanese military, finance and political advisers; China allow police in major cities to be jointly administered by Japanese and Chinese; China buy the bulk of its munitions from Japan; and that China provide Japan with properties for Japanese schools, hospitals and temples. Shikai feared losing all of his power if he went to war with Japan, and so signed an agreement with Japan May 25th.

I) August 1915 Shikai declared his intent to return to a monarchy.

J) Japan decided to overthrow Yuan Shikai and began funneling funds within China to opponents of Yuan – including Sun Yat-sen, which helped spark a rebellion.

K) In March 1916, Yuan abandoned his plans to become emperor. The rebellions against him continued, and very ill, on June 6, at the age of 56, he died. Sun Yat-Sen returned to China.

revolution in china continued3
Revolution in China Continued…

L) In 1919, China's delegation to the Paris Peace Conference asked that all imperialist privileges in China be revoked, and that Japan's "Twenty-One Demands" be repealed. The Chinese delegation was ignored. In Beijing in the afternoon of May 4, over 3,000 students demonstrated at Tiananmen Square. The enraged students burned down the house of one of those they believed had participated in the sellout to Japan and invaded the home of another and beat him senseless.

revolution in china continued4
Revolution in China Continued…

M) A few Chinese were impressed by Lenin's opposition to imperialism. July 1921, two prominent leaders of the May Fourth Movement joined with ten others to found China's Communist Party. Sun Yat-sen was impressed by the willingness of the Communists to cooperate, and in January 1923 he and Moscow signed an agreement; the Russians promised Sun arms and advisors. Despite Sun's alliance with Communists, he saw his goals for China as being attainable without class struggle.

N) 1923 Sun Yat-Sen began an academy for training military officers in modern warfare. The commandant of the academy was a young man named Chiang Kai-shek, a Chinese nationalist.

O) Chiang Kai-Shek consolidated control within his own party by expelling the Communists in a brutal coup in 1927. In 1928, he formed a new central government out of Nanking, with himself as head of state.

revolution in china continued5
Revolution in China Continued…

“The idea of universal brotherhood is innate in the catholic nature of Chinese thought; it was the dominant concept of Dr. Sun Yat-sen, whom events have proved time and again to be not a visionary but one of the world's greatest realists.”

“I have often said China is not lacking in material resources. The question is whether we can make full and good use of them.”

Chiang Kai-Shek

viii turkey and southwest asia
VIII Turkey and Southwest Asia
  • At the end of WWI, all that remained of the Ottoman Empire was Turkey. The Greeks were eager to expand and rebuild their ancient empire.
  • Mustafa Kemal led Turkish nationalists in overthrowing the Sultan in 1922. 1923 Kemal became the president of the new Republic of Turkey. Kemal introduced many reforms, transforming Turkey into a modern state.

1. He separated the laws of Islam from the laws of the nation

2. Women were given more freedom; the right to vote and to hold public office

3. Launched government programs to industrialize Turkey

turkey and southwest asia continued
Turkey and Southwest Asia Continued…

C) Great Britain and Russia fought over the ancient empire of Persia. After WWI the Russians were wrapped up in their revolution and the British tried to seize the opportunity to expand in Persia. In 1921 the Persians revolted against the ruling Shah who had allowed the invasion of foreign powers.

D) Reza Shah Pahlavi (a Persian army officer) overthrew the Shah in 1925 and established himself the ruler of Iran.

1. Set up public schools, built roads, railroads, promoted industrial growth and extended women’s rights

2. Unlike Mustafa Kemal in Turkey, Pahlavi gathered all power into his hands.

turkey and southwest asia continued1
Turkey and Southwest Asia Continued…

E) The Creation of Saudi Arabia: In 1916, Britain promised SherifHussein(an Arab tribal leader) to recognize and support the struggle for Arab independence. British Col. T.E. Lawrence reinforced the British promises with his own word, unaware that those promises were already being betrayed. While Hussein was successfully fighting to clear the Turks from Mecca, Britain’s India Office secretly agreed to support Ibn Saud (another Arab tribal leader) in making his own conquests in the same territory. Why? Hussein believed in pan-Arab unity and independence, a concept that conflicted with Britain’s imperial ambitions. After World War I, Britain’s Secretary of State for the Colonies summed up his country’s objectives: “What we want is not a united Arabia but a disunited Arabia split into principalities under our suzerainty.”

F) In the following years, Britain and France partitioned the Arab lands of the former Ottoman Empire into meaningless national boundaries. During this time, Britain quietly supported Ibn Saud in a series of bloody conquests that in 1927 brought him recognition as King of Saudi Arabia in 1932. (While the British used the title of “king” for the rulers they promoted for Jordan, Saudi Arabia and Iraq, the concept may have mystified the new subjects since the Arabic equivalent appears in the Quran only in reference to non-Muslim leaders.)

G) In 1938 oil reserves were discovered in eastern Saudi Arabia, leading to America’s interests in the region.

ix palestine
IX Palestine
  • After centuries of living in a diaspora, the 1894 Dreyfus Affair in France shocked Jews into realizing they would not be safe from arbitrary anti-Semitism unless they had their own country. In response, Jews created the new concept of political Zionism in which it was believed that through active political maneuvering, a Jewish homeland could be created. Zionism was becoming a popular concept by the time World War I began.
  • British high commissioner in Egypt, Sir Henry McMahon promised that if the Arabs supported Britain in WWI, Britain would support the establishment of an independent Arab state under Hashemite rule in the Arab provinces of the Ottoman Empire, including Palestine. The Arab revolt, led by Husayn’s son Faysal and T. E. Lawrence (“Lawrence of Arabia”), was successful in defeating the Ottomans, and Britain took control over much of this area during WWI. However, Britain made a similar promise to the Jews…
  • The Balfour Declaration was issued on November 2, 1917, in a letter from Balfour to Lord Rothschild, president of the British Zionist Federation. It promised Palestine to the Jews.
  • The League of Nations granted Britain a mandate over Iraq, as well as the area that now comprises Israel, the West Bank, the Gaza Strip and Jordan. In 1921, the British divided this latter region in two: East of the Jordan River became the Emirate of Transjordan, to be ruled by Faysal’s brother ‘Abdallah, and west of the Jordan River became the Palestine Mandate. It was the first time in modern history that Palestine became a unified political entity.
the balfour declaration
The Balfour Declaration

Foreign Office

November 2nd, 1917

Dear Lord Rothschild,

I have much pleasure in conveying to you, on behalf of His Majesty's Government, the following declaration of sympathy with Jewish Zionist aspirations which has been submitted to, and approved by, the Cabinet.

"His Majesty's Government view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavours to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country."

I should be grateful if you would bring this declaration to the knowledge of the Zionist Federation.

Yours sincerely,

Arthur James Balfour

x india nationalism
X India Nationalism

A) Upper class Indians who had attended British schools learned European views of nationalism and democracy and began to resent British rule. Two groups formed:

1. Indian National Congress

2. Muslim League

Although Hindus and Muslims have a rocky history they could find common ground in resisting foreign rule

B) Indians fighting in for the British in WWI were offered government promises of reforms in exchange for their service, and eventual independence. When they came home they were again treated as second class citizens.

C) 1919 the British government passed the RowlattAct. It allowed the government to jail protestors without trail for as long as two years. This was a serious offense to western educated Indians.

D) The Amristar Massacre: Spring 1919 10,000 Hindus and Muslims flocked to Amritsar(capital of Punjab and a holy city for Sikhs) to protest British rule. The British had banned public meetings therefore the entire festival was “illegal”. British General Reginald Dyer ordered his troops to fire on the crowd without warning. British troops killed 400 Indians and injured 1200.

india nationalism continued
India Nationalism Continued…

A British man getting a pedicure from his Indian servant.

india nationalism continued1
India Nationalism Continued…

E) After the Amritsar Massacres and British failure to punish the offending officers Gandhi proposed his policy of “noncooperation”. In 1920 the Indian National Congress Party adopted this policy of civil disobedience and nonviolence

F) Gandhi urged the people to refuse to buy British goods, attend government schools, pay British taxes and vote in elections. Throughout 1920 the British arrested thousands of Indians who had participated in strikes and demonstrations. Gandhi’s civil disobedience took a heavy economic toll on the British struggled to keep trains running, factories open, and overcrowded jails from bursting. Despite Gandhi’s pleas for nonviolence, riots did break out.

Who was Ghandi?

Mahatma Gandhi studied law in England and practiced in South Africa. He joined the INC before WWI. He became leader of the INC as he was better able to relate to the problems of the common people. He strongly believed in the idea of non-violent resistance, and directly influenced Martin Luther King Jr., who who argued that the Gandhian philosophy was ‘‘the only morally and practically sound method open to oppressed people in their struggle for freedom’’.

“You must be the change you wish to see in the world.”

india nationalism continued2
India Nationalism Continued…

G) In 1930 the Indian National Congress and Gandhi declared India independent of British rule. Obviously the British ignored this so Gandhi decided to take his protests to another level; he organized a salt protest. According to British law, Indians could only buy salt from the government andthey had to pay a tax on it. To show their opposition, Gandhi and his followers walked 240 miles to the seacoast and collected their own salt by letting ocean water evaporate “salt march”. Demonstrators planned to march to a factory where the British processed salt, but were attacked by police. An American journalist on the scene described the “sickening whacks of clubs on unprotected skulls and people writhing in pain with fractured skulls or broken shoulders”. 60,000 people as well as Gandhi himself were arrested.

Gandhi picking up salt grains

india nationalism continued3
India Nationalism Continued…

H) Eventually the protests and international pressure were too much for the British to ignore. In 1935 they passed the Government of India Act – giving limited self rule to the Indians. The Hindu Indian National Congress was the party in control and this quickly offended the Muslim league… The rest of the Indian Independence story doesn’t pick up again until after World War II when the British finally lose the ability to control India from abroad and give up in 1947… opening a whole new can of worms with the division of India and Pakistan.

xi african nationalism
XI African Nationalism

A) Marcus Garvey (a Jamaican printer) envisioned a global movement that would unite the race and found an African empire. In 1914, Garvey established the Universal Negro Improvement and Conservation Association and African Communities League. He met little success in Jamaica, was more successful in the US. Among its objectives, the UNIA sought to promote race pride, “strengthen the imperialism of independent African States,” promote worldwide commerce and industry, and “promote a conscientious Christian worship” that would aid “in civilizing the backward tribes of Africa. The UNIA quickly grew into one of the largest organizations in the history of Pan-African liberation movements and the African Diaspora. Its weekly newspaper, The Negro World, circulated around the globe, alarming colonial officials, who banned the paper from their colonies. Garvey’s rhetorical call of “Africa for the Africans” earned him considerable praise as well as numerous enemies in the United States and the Caribbean. By 1920, the UNIA claimed over one thousand divisions in forty countries. Garvey’s desire to establish a steamship company to facilitate international trade between Africa and blacks in the Caribbean and United States captured the imagination of millions. The UNIA also entered into negotiations with the Americo-Liberian elite in Liberia to establish a UNIA “colony” that would facilitate repatriating western blacks to Africa, though these plans fell through due to pressure from the U.S., French, and British governments. Perhaps Garvey’s greatest achievement was the UNIA’s International Conventions of the Negro Peoples of the World. The first of several conventions convened for the entire month of August, 1920. Those present came from countries throughout the African world and adopted the Declaration of the Rights of the Negro Peoples of the World, which adopted the red, black, and green flag as the “colors of the Negro Race” and called for the “complete control of our social institutions without interference by any alien race or races.” However, the largely Afro-Caribbean membership of the African Blood Brotherhood (ABB), questioned whether Africans would want a black person from the Caribbean, as opposed to their own able leaders. Members of the ABB also questioned Garvey’s emphasis on building an African empire, which they felt would re-create all the problems of the British and French empires.

african nationalism continued
African Nationalism Continued…

B) The most enduring representation of early-twentieth-century Pan-Africanism came in the Pan-African congresses. W. E. B. Du Bois, the renowned scholar and intellectual who headed the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People’s publicity department called for the Pan-African Congress to meet in Paris, and it was convened February 19–21, 1919. It attracted delegates from throughout the African Diaspora, though no representatives came from the British West Indies, and hardly any were present from West Africa. White representatives from France, Belgium, and Portugal defended their countries’ colonial policies, while the U.S. representative William Walling (an NAACP cofounder) argued that changes to American racial policies were on the horizon. The resolution called on the proposed League of Nations to establish rules for governing African colonial and peoples of African descent.

C) In planning the second congress, Du Bois expressed a desire to “have a strong representation of the West Africans.” The second congress met in London, August 27–29, 1921, and in Brussels and Paris from August 31 to September 2, 1921. Importantly, a third of its participants came from Africa, though only seven of the 113 were from the Caribbean. The congress’s resolution came out more forcefully for self-government in Africa, the return of expropriated lands, the development of the masses, and for race leaders to align themselves more closely to black workers rather than white capitalists.


african nationalism continued1
African Nationalism Continued…

Marcus Garvey

“The Black skin is not a badge of shame, but rather a glorious symbol of national greatness.”

W.E.B DuBois

“A little less complaint and whining, and a little more dogged work and manly striving, would do us more credit than a thousand civil rights bills.”

focus questions
Focus Questions
  • What were the causes and consequences of the

a. Great Depression

b. New Deal

c. Russian Revolution

d. Chinese Revolution

2. What led to the creation of Turkey, Saudi Arabia, and Palestine/Transjordan? What were the consequences?

3. What led to increased Indian and Pan African nationalism? What were the consequences?

4. Which of the above do you feel most contributed to WWII and why?

5. If you could change the outcome of any of the above events, what would you change and why?