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Preventing Infectious Diseases
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  1. Chapter 13 Preventing Infectious Diseases

  2. How to Answer: 1 = never 2 = occasionally 3 = most of the time 4 = all of the time

  3. Chapter 13 What do your answers mean? 22-32: you’re doing a good job of protecting yourself from the spread of infectious disease. 11-21: you’re doing well overall but there is room for improvement. 0-10: you need to carefully look at your habits, to help prevent catching or spreading an infectious disease.

  4. Chapter 13 Preventing Infectious Diseases Contents • Section 1What Are Infectious Diseases? • Section 2Protecting Yourself from Infectious Diseases • Section 3Common Infectious Diseases

  5. Section1 What Are Infectious Diseases? Chapter 13 What CAUSES Infectious Diseases? • Infectious diseases • caused by agents invading the body • Bacteria • single-celled organisms • some cause disease • some are harmless or even helpful to the body • Examples: tetanus, tuberculosis (TB), strep throat, sinus infections What Staph & MRSA looks like

  6. Section1 What Are Infectious Diseases? Chapter 13 What CAUSES Infectious Diseases? • Viruses • Invade & replicate inside living cells. • Examples: colds, flu, measles, chicken pox, HPV, Hepatitis, HIV. • Fungi • absorb & use the nutrients of living or dead organisms. • Examples: athlete’s foot, ringworm

  7. Section1 What Are Infectious Diseases? Chapter 13 What CAUSES Infectious Diseases? • Protozoans • accounts for some of the leading causes of death worldwide (ex: malaria) • Parasites • feed on other living things • Examples: head lice, tapeworms, and some roundworms are parasites.

  8. Section1 What Are Infectious Diseases? Chapter 13 How Are Infectious Diseases TREATED? • Antibiotics • kill or slow the growth of bacteria. • Examples: penicillin, bactrim (staph). • Antibiotic resistance • a condition in which bacteria can no longer be killed by a particular antibiotic. • Improper use of antibiotics contributes to the growth of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

  9. Section1 What Are Infectious Diseases? Chapter 13 How Are Infectious Diseases TREATED? • Treating Viral Diseases • Difficult to treat. Most antiviral medications focus on relieving symptoms. • Viruses are not affected by antibiotics. • Treating Fungal Infections • Some infections are treatable with OTC’s • Others require Rx

  10. Section1 What Are Infectious Diseases? Chapter 13 How Are Infectious Diseases TREATED? • Treating Protozoan Infections • The best protection is prevention, and using good hygiene & sanitation. • Treating Parasites • Example: Head lice can be treated with medicated shampoos.

  11. Section2 Protecting Yourself from Infectious Diseases Chapter 13 How Your Body Fights Disease • Physical barriers to pathogens include: • Skin (simple barrier) • Mucous membranes (trap pathogens) • Chemicals (weaken or kill) • Inflammation (and Infection) • a normal reaction to injury. • SIGNS OF INFECTION (pathogens are winning the battle over your body): • Pain • Redness • Swelling

  12. Section2 Protecting Yourself from Infectious Diseases Chapter 13 How Your Body Fights Disease • The immune system is the body’s system for fighting disease once it is in the body. • White blood cells defend the body against disease. • Antibodies are proteins that mark pathogens to be destroyed by white blood cells. • The lymphatic system is a network of vessels that carry lymph throughout the body, carrying viruses and bacteria back to the lymph nodes.

  13. Section2 Protecting Yourself from Infectious Diseases Chapter 13 What You Can Do to Stay Well • Get enough sleep. • Avoid close contact with sick people. • Protect yourself (wash hands, cover wounds, etc) • Eat a healthy, balanced diet. • Drink plenty of water. • Get regular medical checkups. • Stay up to date on all available vaccines. • Reduce your stress levels. • Exercise regularly.

  14. Section2 Protecting Yourself from Infectious Diseases Chapter 13 What to Do When You Are Sick • Stay home and rest. • Drink plenty of fluids. • Throw away tissues you use right away. • Follow all the directions your doctor gives, like following directions for medications.

  15. Section2 Protecting Yourself from Infectious Diseases Chapter 13 How to Prevent the Spread of Disease • Get vaccinated (required school shots, flu shots, etc). • Wash with soap frequently (> 30 seconds). • Don’t share: • Food • Drinks • Personal items (toothbrushes, etc). • Cover your mouth when you sneeze or cough with tissue, and wash hands very frequently.

  16. Section2 Protecting Yourself from Infectious Diseases Chapter 13 How to Prevent the Spread of Disease • When you are outdoors: • wear long-sleeved shirts and pants in long grass • use insect repellant when necessary • avoid contact with animals that behave strangely (rabies) • avoid drinking and swimming in remote, still waters (amoeba, etc)

  17. Section3 Common Infectious Diseases Chapter 13 Diseases Affect Everybody • The best defense against pathogens is avoiding behaviors that increase our risk of infection. • No matter how healthy we are, we all become ill from diseases sometimes. • There are so many pathogens in so many places it is impossible to avoid them.

  18. Section3 Common Infectious Diseases Chapter 13 Common BACTERIAL Diseases • Tetanus • causes severe muscle spasms. • It enters the body through cuts or wounds. • Vaccinations are the best form of prevention. • Strep throat • sore throat and spots on the tonsils. • spread by contact with mucus. • The best prevention is avoiding contact with infected people.

  19. Section3 Common Infectious Diseases Chapter 13 Common BACTERIAL Diseases • Meningitis • inflammation of membranes around the brain and spinal cord. • spread by contact with mucus or saliva. • There are some vaccines for meningitis. • Sinus infections (Sinusitis) • cause headaches, mucus, and pressure in the head. • spread by contact with mucus. • Prevention includes avoiding infected people and avoiding irritants and allergens in the air.

  20. Section3 Common Infectious Diseases Chapter 13 Common BACTERIAL Diseases • Salmonella • headaches, stomach cramps, diarrhea, and nausea. • It is spread by eating food from an infected animal or food contaminated by an infected person. • Prevention involves proper refrigeration, cooking, and handling of food.

  21. Section3 Common Infectious Diseases Chapter 13 Other Common Diseases • Fungal infections • examples: athlete’s foot, jock itch, ringworm • often occurs when the fungus contacts dark, warm, moist skin. • Prevention: good personal hygiene and keeping clothes clean & dry. • Malaria • the most widespread and serious protozoan disease worldwide. • spread from person to person via mosquitoes. • Malaria can be prevented and treated with antimalarial medicines.

  22. Section3 Common Infectious Diseases Chapter 13 Other Common Infections • Parasites • inside the body examples: hookworms, tapeworms • outside the body examples: lice, leeches, ticks, fleas • contracted by: • eating infected food • drinking infected water • contacting infected soil • getting bitten by infected insects

  23. Section3 Common Infectious Diseases Chapter 13 Working Toward a Healthy Future • International air travel has made it easier for diseases to spread from country to country. • Public health organizations throughout the world fight diseases through vaccinations and treatments. • The National Institute of Health (NIH) and Centers for Disease Control (CDC) track the spread of diseases and watch for new diseases entering the country.

  24. End of Chapter 13