COLONIAL AMERICA 1682 - 1821. What is a colony? A colony is an area that is under the full or partial political control of another country, typically a distant one, and occupied by citizens from that country.
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1682 - 1821
What is a colony? A colony is anarea that is under the full or partialpolitical control of another country, typically a distant one, and occupied by citizens from that country.
The three colonial powers of North America from about the 1500’s on were Spain, Britain, and France.They each claimed huge areas ofthe continent, but soon realizedthat claiming and controlling thisland were two very different things. Territory changed handsa lot, as you will see.
From 1756 to 1763, Britain and France were engaged in a War known as the Seven Years’ War. They battled for naval and colonial supremacy.
This war spilled over to their colonies in the Americas.Because many groups of Native Americans allied themselves with the French, this war became known as the French and Indian War in the Americas.
Under the Treaty of Paris of 1763, Great Britain gained Canada and all French land east of the Mississippi River. Spain received New Orleans and all French land west of the Mississippi.
Thirteen years later, in 1776,
Americans east of the
Mississippi River began their
fight for independence from
England. In 1783, British
territory became the United States.
Spain aided the Americans in their fight for independence. One Spaniard who stood outin this effort was Bernardo de Galvez, for whom the city of Galveston was named. He was the governor of Spanish held Louisiana at the time.
Galvez aided the American colonists by:1. opening the port of New Orleans to American ships2. giving money, weapons, and other supplies to the Americans3. recruiting soldiers to keep Louisiana and the Mississippi River out of British hands.
In 1800, Spain was forced togive its part of the Louisianaterritory back to France becauseof a treaty with Napoleon.Spain, however, continued toadminister (rule) it for the nextthree years.
In 1803, France, who had lost most of its holdings in the westernhemisphere, sold its LouisianaTerritory to the United States for$15 million. This doubled the sizeof the United States. This sale wasknown as the Louisiana Purchase.
With the signing of the Louisiana Purchase, Spain and the U.S. quarreled about the border of their two lands. In 1819, the Adams-Onis Treaty settled this dispute. Spain gave Florida to the U.S. and agreed to the Sabine River as the eastern boundary of Texas. In return, the United States gave up all claims of Texas being part of the Louisiana Purchase.
In the early 1800’s, many Mexicans
were becoming unhappy with Spanish rule. The best jobs in Mexico were reserved for men sent from Spain as administrators. Also, Spain increased Mexican taxes to help pay for wars in Europe.
Mexican independence from Spain came about as a result of an Indian uprising led by a poor priest. In 1810, Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla issued a call for freedom from Spain. It was called the “Grito de Dolores,” or “Cry of Sorrows.”
Father Miguel Hidalgo’s “Grito”:“My children: a new dispensation comes to us today. Will you receive it? Will you free yourselves? Will you recover the land stolen 300 years ago from your forefathers? … We must act at once… Will you not defend your religion and your rights as true patriots?”
A few months later, in 1811, Father Hidalgo was caught and executed. His cause, however, would continued for ten more years until its success in 1821, when Mexicobroke free of Spanish rule.