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The World Bank Handbook for Post-Disaster Housing and Community Reconstruction Jennifer Duyne Barenstein , WHRU, University of Applied Sciences of Southern Switzerland Shelter Meeting 9a, Geneva, 7-8 May 2009
Objectives of Handbook • Assist Bank staff engaged in large-scale post-disaster housing reconstruction programs -- and the Bank’s counterparts in government -- to make decisions about post-disaster policies and programs. • Consolidate experiences, good and bad, from various types of disasters. Identify emerging good practice. • Harmonize thinking with others working in the housing and community reconstruction field (bilateral agencies, NGOs).
Objectives of Handbook • Create a community of practice in post-disaster housing and community reconstruction through consultation process and establishing related website (July 2009): www.housingreconstruction.org • Focus attention on how disaster risk reduction and prevention activities can reduce the need for housing reconstruction or improve its efficiency.
Handbook overview GUIDING PRINCIPLES PART 1: RECONSTRUCTION TASKS AND HOW TO UNDERTAKE THEM Section 1: Assessing Impact and Defining Reconstruction Policy • Post-Disaster Needs Assessment • Who Gets a House? Social Dimension of Housing Reconstruction • To Resettle or Not to Resettle • Reconstruction Approaches
Handbook overview Section 2: Planning Reconstruction • Land Use and Physical Planning • Infrastructure and Services Delivery • Environmental Planning • Housing Design and Construction Technology • Cultural Heritage Conservation
Handbook overview Section 3 Project Implementation • Institutional Options for Reconstruction Management • Effective Donor Coordination and Partnerships • Managing the Financial Aspects of Reconstruction Section 4 Monitoring and Information Management • Social Communication in Post-Disaster Reconstruction • Information and Communications Technology in Reconstruction • Monitoring and Evaluation
Handbook overview PART 2 CROSS-CUTTING ISSUES IN RECONSTRUCTION • The Context of a Reconstruction Project • Community Participation • Compensation and Household Finances • Mitigating the Risk of Corruption • Training Requirements in Reconstruction
Handbook overview PART 3: INFORMATION FOR WORLD BANK STAFF • World Bank Response to Crises and Emergencies • Safeguard Policies for Post-Disaster Operations • Financial Management in WB Housing Reconstruction Projects • Procurement Procedures in WB Housing Reconstruction Projects
Handbook overview PART 4 TECHNICAL REFERENCES • Principles of Disaster Risk Management • Glossary • Index
Why does the World Bank and its Counterparts need a Handbook for post-disaster reconstruction ? • Housing typically accounts for 50 percent or more of damage and losses after disasters; • Amounts are rising due to severity of disasters, population growth and urbanization, informal settlement patterns • More than 95 percent of all deaths caused by disasters occur in developing countries; and losses due to natural disasters are 20 times greater (as a percentage of GDP) in developing countries than in industrialized countries • In spite of important role of non-governmental humanitarian agencies in large-scale disasters, governments generally have a leading role in housing reconstruction in particular with defining policies • Governments have the responsibility to ensure equitable and sustainable reconstruction • Governments often take loan from the to finance recnstruction World Bank • Since 1980, the World Bank has approved more than 500 operations related to disaster management, amounting to more than US$40 billion.
Why does the World Bank and its Counterparts need a Handbook for post-disaster reconstruction ? • Reducing the factors that contribute to disaster impacts falls squarely within the World Bank’s mandate and often in existing areas of government/Bank collaboration: • Urban development, local planning and management practices • Housing sector and local infrastructure policy and finance • Environment, forestry and floodplain management • Economic incentives for risk reduction (insurance, building codes) • Disasters and the threat of disasters are dampening economic growth, especially in “hot-spot” countries
Challenges in Developing Handbook • Scope of issues to be covered (from assessment to resettlement; from community participation to housing materials and technologies, many more) • Lack of rigorous analysis and consolidation of worldwide reconstruction experience, including urban reconstruction • Fierce debate on many key issues (resettlement, use of vernacular housing technologies, reconstruction approach, compensation schemes), including within the World Bank
Challenges in Reconstruction Process • Similar challenges in different countries and disasters, but solutions are unique. Handbook tries to focus on options whenever possible. • Lack of preparation and anticipatory policy-making – compensation schemes, research on improved traditional housing construction methods, land administration systems, record-keeping. Result is having to make too many decisions and gather baseline information, under difficult post-disaster conditions. Handbook may serve as warning to users.
Challenges in Reconstruction Process • Coordination of interventions and challenge of harmonizing response (government/NGO, central/local government). • Avoiding disparities in assistance among those affected and between those affected and not affected. • Risk reduction in reconstruction. People reconstruct on their own schedule and in their own way.
Challenges in Reconstruction Process • Reconstruction takes more time that government or donors want to admit. Money often runs out – reconstruction is poor cousin of humanitarian response. • The transition between emergency sheltering, transitional shelter, and permanent housing solutions. Avoiding disempowering the affected population and making early decisions that preclude good solutions later.
Challenges in Reconstruction Process • Involving affected community in substantive decisions. • Long-term economic effect of disasters on families. • Preserving community and livelihoods in reconstruction and resettlement. • Trying to overcome development problems in reconstruction not fully addressed in normal times.
Next Steps • Taking comments through May 15 at www.tcgillc.com/pdhh.html • “Final” handbook (August/September 2009) • Development of “Field Guide”–executive summary by chapter (August/September 2009) • Handbook web site www.housingreconstruction.org (July 2009) • Ongoing feedback and updating • Specific studies related to findings and feedback from users • Use of handbook in Bank/country dialogue and programming (lending and technical assistance)
Thank you for your attention! This project is being carried out by a consortium composed of: