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Two Years’ Growth for One Year of Instruction . Presented by: Quality Quinn. For more information. ww Click on presentations Find your state on the map Click!. Process for Leadership. Challenge the process search for opportunities change status quo

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Find your state on the map



Process for Leadership

  • Challenge the process
    • search for opportunities
    • change status quo
  • Inspiring a shared vision
    • imagine the ideal situation
  • Enabling others to act
    • foster cooperation
    • modeling the way
  • Encouraging the heart to begin the journey
state of the nation
State of the Nation
  • Annual testing -NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND
  • The Real Agenda: The STEMs
    • Science,Technology,Engineering,Mathematics
    • Social Studies
ireland india china
Ireland, India, China
  • High levels of literacy
  • High levels of math literacy
  • Low cost of living
  • Low wages
  • Language
you can t tutor what hasn t been taught
You Can’t Tutor What Hasn’tBeen Taught
  • You can’t tutor what hasn’t been taught
  • You can’t tutor what hasn’t been taught
  • You can’t tutor what hasn’t been taught
  • You can’t tutor what hasn’t been taught
  • You can’t tutor what hasn’t been taught
  • You can’t tutor what hasn’t been taught
  • You can’t tutor what hasn’t been taught

The goal of the teacher is to create an environment that allows every reader to move as quickly as possible to grade level, content area reading

without selling-out and just attempting to teach to the test.

What immediate steps will ensure growth… we’re looking for growth!

the model
The Model
  • Rigorous state Standards that raise expectations

Curriculum and benchmarks aligned to state standards

  • Quality, on-going professional development for teachers who support and teach reading
  • Resources to support new instructional strategies and classroom management strategies
  • Informal classroom diagnostic assessment for math and reading growth
  • Maximizing Federal Dollars (Title 1) to buy more TIME
grade level meetings student specific
Grade Level Meetings-Student specific
  • Find and use ALL data
  • Do analysis for strength and weakness
  • Prioritize needs
  • Set goals (what % of sub groups will grow 04-05)
  • Brainstorm specific strategies
  • Results indicators
  • Action Plan
how we can help
How we can help?
  • Prepare for early success
  • Prevent learners from falling behind
  • Intervene for below level learners
  • Challenge above grade level learners
three flavors of assessment
Three Flavors of Assessment
  • Summative Assessment = External Reporting
    • Scorekeeping
    • Broad data for identifying specific populations
    • Program evaluation and budget indicators
  • Formative Assessment =Internal Reporting
    • Intervention: Do something differently, immediately (STOP Spray and Pray!)
    • Progress monitoring over time for individual students
    • Data used to plan “next move” for instruction (lesson design)
  • Getting a Grade =Comfort the troubled, trouble the comfortable
    • Public relations
    • A,B,C,D,F: Coin of the realm
the challenge
The Challenge

After third grade, the achievement gap with minority, second language, and low-income learners widens substantially

  • Incomplete beginning reading instruction
  • Serious vocabulary deficit
  • Very limited knowledge of text structure
  • Misconceptions about fluency
  • Lack of meaningful early comprehension assessment
the three most important words for the struggling reader
The three most important words for the struggling reader:
  • Words-words-words-words-words-words-words-words-words-words-words-words-words-words-words-words-words-words-words-words-you get it!!!!
registers of language r payne
Registers of Language –R. Payne
  • Frozen: Language that is always the same
  • Formal: Standard sentence syntax of work and school.
  • Consultative: Formal register when used with conversation. Discourse patterns slightly less formal.
  • Casual: Language between friends: 400-800 word vocabulary. Non-specific word-choice; non-verbal assists determine meaning. Sentence syntax often incomplete.
  • Intimate: Language between lovers or twins. The language of sexual harassment.
vocabulary instruction
Vocabulary Instruction
  • Concept vocabulary
    • Big idea words: attrition, populism, hypothesis
  • Context vocabulary
    • Words that have multiple meanings: economy, mine, elements, book, state, set, case
  • Vocabulary structure
    • Words with recognizable Latin cognates: migratory, revolt, spectator
    • Jim Cummins-Word Harvesting
what words to teach bringing words to life robust vocabulary instruction isabel beck nancy mackowen
What Words to TeachBringing Words to Life—ROBUST Vocabulary InstructionIsabel Beck ,Nancy MacKowen

First tier wordsWords that you wish students knew, hope they can get, but you don’t have time to teach.

Second tier wordsHigh utility words that they need to know in your class, and everyone else’s.

Third tier wordsExtremely specific words in your content area that require considered, deliberate and in depth instruction.

language arts1
Language Arts
  • Whose woods these are I think I know: his house is in the village, though. He will not mind me stopping here to watch his woods fill up with snow. My little horse must think it queer to stop without a farmhouse near. He gives his harness bells a shake, to ask if there is some mistake.The only other sound’s the sweep of easy wind and downy flake. The woods are lovely dark and deep,but I have promises to keep…and miles to go before I sleep. And miles to go before I sleep.
  • Pronouns, demonstrative adjectives
  • The Hall-Heroult process is essentially the electrolytic decomposition of purified bauxite. In a cell made of iron, a solution of Al2O3 in molten cryolite, Na3AlF6, conducts the current.
  • Procedural words, ordinals, first, then, next, etc.
social studies history
Social Studies/History
  • Although The Confederacy represented the Southern states, its army attacked Gettysburg from the North. The Confederate Generals, having spent a tough winter and spring in the Shenandoah Valley, were desperate for supplies, particularly shoes. Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, a farming and shoe manufacturing community would hopefully provide the much needed supplies.
  • Subordinating conjunctions: since, while, because, although, yet, if, as if, however, etc.
  • The architect and contractor were conferring over the blueprints of the new ten story parking garage. It needed to be ten floors and have space for compact cars. Each floor required twenty-two “I” beams, plus one additional beam for each additional floor after the first. Determine the number of “I” beams and show a possible structural configuration.
math research
Math Research
  • Embed in real world:make it engaging, generating more questions
  • Create a language rich classroom
    • Justifying, generalizations, highly verbal, highly visual students
  • Draw pictures, create mental images, foster visualization
  • Build from charts, graphs & tables- also, the misinterpretation of data
  • Don’t leave out measurement
three muscles
Three Muscles:
  • Early Language Experience
    • Phonemic awareness and concept development
    • Vocabulary, academic language and alphabetic principle
  • Decoding muscle
    • Three ways of getting meaning off the page
      • (1)phonics…primary decoding strategy
      • (2)semantics and vocabulary
      • (3) syntax and structure
  • Fluency muscle
    • Reads a lot of words fast w/ comprehension*
    • Class libraries of high-interest content related articles
    • Every day, every reader reading at a level of success of self-selected quality literature (fiction or non-fiction)
news flash
News Flash!!!!!
  • 26 letters and 44 sounds
  • 17 reliable letters, (letters that always sound the same) q,w,,t,p,d,f,h,j,k,l,z,x,v,n,m,b,
  • 4 that are switch hitters... s,g,c&r
  • 3 that are pests ...a,o,u
  • 3 that will make you CRAZY!!!!…i,e,y
  • Double vowels: oa, oo, ee, ea, oi, ou, au
  • Blends: ch, sh, wh, st,str, pl, sl, fl, gl, cl, bl, kl,cr,scr,
vocabulary and phonics
Vocabulary and Phonics
  • stench ap-pal-ling
  • de-hu-man-ize intro-spec-tion
  • in-e-qui-ty el-e-ments
  • cru-el-ty re-a-li-ty in-hu-man-i-ty
  • in-hu-man col-lab-o-ra-tion
  • e-con-o-my hur-dle
  • shame re-con-struc-tion
  • em-path-y mine
teaching word attack phonics in science
Teaching Word Attack (phonics) in Science
  • Con-ser-va-tion bun-dle
  • Ac-cel-er-a-tion state
  • Force base
  • Mass mol-e-cule
  • Grav-i-ta-tion-al force gas-e-ous
  • Ter-min-al vel-o-city
  • Grav-i-ta-tion-al at-trac-tion
  • Mo-men-tum






definition of comprehension
Definition of Comprehension
  • Comprehension is defined as:
    • “intentional thinking during which meaning is constructed through interactions between the text and the reader” (Harris & Hodges,1995)

Comparing and contrasting

Connecting to prior experiences

Inferencing (including generalizing and drawing conclusions)


Questioning the text

Recognizing the author’s purpose

Seeing causal relationships



an excerpt
…an excerpt
  • Draped for the formal unveiling May 31 – with only an insouciant topknot and Horton The Elephant’s trunk peeking out – the sculptures frolic on the wide green linking the city library and its four museums that gave wing to the author’s imagination.--
testwiseness an important piece of a comprehensive intervention strategy
Testwiseness: An Important Piece of a Comprehensive Intervention Strategy
  • On-going, sustained test readiness and rehearsal, i.e. testwiseness
  • Phonics instruction for those who received “hit-or-miss” decoding during whole language approach; analyze spelling errors
  • Build fluency with an “every day, every child reads at a level of success” approach; assess for oral expression, pace and accuracy
  • Use regular non-fiction writing events to teach science & soc. studies syntax; CRCT high-level comprehensionobjectives
teaching comprehension directly
Teaching Comprehension Directly
  • Monitor the use of the strategy
  • Offer less coaching as less is called for
  • Ask what strategy they are using & why, therefore bringing the strategy to the student’s awareness
  • Give students continued opportunity to observe more modeling
  • Provide multiple and ongoing opportunities for students to interact w/others using a variety of text
how do i teach those strategies
How do I teach those strategies?
  • Decide which strategy you want to model and which text to use
  • Tell your students which strategy you are going to practice while you read
  • Read the passage to the students modeling the strategy you are using..think aloud
  • During real reading, give your students multiple chances to practice
  • Continue modeling as the genre or text structure changes
  • Give students a chance to practice without your coaching or support
5 critical elements for rapid growth
5 Critical Elements for Rapid Growth
  • Lesson Design
    • Reading Content alignment: vertical and horizontal teaming—ELL, Spec.Ed.
    • Assessment driving differentiated instruction
  • Classroom Management
    • Instruction in terms of minutes
    • Collaboration
      • Whole class, small group, think-pair-share, indep.
  • Grade Level Meetings
    • Agendas, increased frequency, evidence driven
    • Student specific with proofs of instruction/learning
    • The Role of the Literacy Coach
5 critical elements for rapid growth1
5 Critical Elements for Rapid Growth
  • New expectation for ALL learners
    • Interactive learning and discourse for meaning
    • What the brain likes-MULTISENSORY
    • Reading for MATH
  • Analyzing Data
    • Moving from being data rich to analysis poor
    • SOAP
      • Subjective, Objective, Analyze-Assess, Plan
    • ELL, Spec. Ed.
struggling older reader
Struggling Older Reader
  • Incomplete beginning reading instruction
  • Lacks metacognitive strategies
  • Limited prior knowledge
  • Limited word study skills and spelling
  • No text available at level of success
  • No adults modeling reading
  • No history of reading success
five keys to no child left behind
Five Keys to No Child Left Behind
  • Vertical team study of 4-9 reading curriculum with evidence of student work
  • Phonemic Awareness &Phonics training for 4th through 9th grade teachers
  • Vocabulary instruction training geared more toward “word harvest”
  • Ready availability of compelling leveled text with conditional assessment
  • Classroom management strategies that provide intensity and focus for below level readers

Process for Leadership

  • Challenge the process
    • search for opportunities
    • change status quo
  • Inspiring a shared vision
    • imagine the ideal situation
  • Enabling others to act
    • foster cooperation
    • modeling the way
  • Encouraging the heart to begin the journey
the old syllable the part of a word controlled by a vowel in english there are 6 types
The Old Syllable-the part of a word controlled by a vowel- In English, there are 6 types
  • Syllable that is a single letter, single vowel, as in a-bout, i-dent-i-fy, e-lec-tric, a-vail-a-ble
  • Syllable ending in vowel, as in cru-el-ty,
  • Syllable ending in a consonant, as in al-co-hol, con-su-mer, ath-lete

Syllable ending in -tion-sion, as in in-tro-duc-tion

  • Syllable ending in -le, as in tin-gle, pic-kle, bi-cy-cle
  • Syllable ending with a vowel, consonant, silent “e”, as in shame, dime, kite, mon-o-tone, val-en-tine
  • O-le
  • Que-so
  • Cam-e-ro-nes
recent headlines and quotes
Recent Headlines and Quotes
  • More than half of California 9th Graders Flunk Exit Exam, Education Week
  • “It will take at least ten years to reach proficiency for all learners”NCLB
  • “adequate yearly progress” President Bush
  • Still Leaving Children Behind Krista Kafta, Heritage Foundation
  • Reading is the New Requisite for MathEducation Week
grammar is syntax
Grammar IS Syntax
  • The power the lowly preposition
  • The power of the subordinating conjunction
  • State opinion
  • Support with clear evidence or examples
  • Personalize
  • Appeal to the emotions
  • Graphic imagery
  • Structured argument
  • All to action
phoneme isolation
Phoneme Isolation
  • Children recognize individual sounds in a word.
  • Teacher:
    • What is the first sound in van?
  • Children:
    • The first sound in van is /v/.
phoneme identity
Phoneme Identity
  • Children recognize the same sounds in different words.
  • Teacher:
    • What sound is the same in fix, fall, and fun?
  • Children:
    • The first sound, /f/, is the same.
phoneme categorization
Phoneme Categorization
  • Children recognize the word in a set of three or four words that has the “odd” sound.
  • Teacher:
    • Which word doesn’t belong? Bus, bun, rug.
  • Children:
    • Rug does not belong. It doesn’t begin with /b/.
phoneme blending
Phoneme Blending
  • Children listen to a sequence of separately spoken phonemes, and then combine the phonemes to form a word.
  • Teacher:
    • What word is /b/ /i/ /g/?
  • Children:
    • /b/ /i/ /g/ is big.
  • Teacher:
    • Now let’s write the sounds in big: /b/ /i/ /g/. (Teacher writes big.) Now we’re going to read the word big.
phoneme segmentation
Phoneme Segmentation
  • Children break a word into its separate sounds, saying each sound as they tap out or count it.
  • Teacher:
    • How many sounds are in grab?
  • Children:
    • /g/ /r/ /a/ /b/. Four sounds.
  • Teacher:
    • Now let’s write the sounds in grab: /g/ /r/ /a/ /b/. (Teacher writes grab.) Now we’re going to read the word grab.
phoneme deletion
Phoneme Deletion
  • Children recognize the word that remains when a phoneme is removed from another word.
  • Teacher:
    • What is smile without the /s/?
  • Children:
    • Smile without the /s/ is mile.
phoneme addition
Phoneme Addition
  • Children make a new word by adding a phoneme to an existing word.
  • Teacher:
    • What word do you have if you add /s/ to the beginning of park?
  • Children:
    • Spark.
phoneme substitution
Phoneme Substitution
  • Children substitute one phoneme for another to make a new word.
  • Teacher:
    • The word is bug. Change /g/ to /n/. What’s the new word?
  • Children:
    • Bun.
what should be done
What should be done?
  • Dedicated developmental reading testing preparedness program 5th through 8th
  • Continued professional development for ALL teachers in reading intervention 5-12
  • Initiate on-going professional development in science, social studies, and math reading & writing
  • Integrate a “testwiseness” curriculum for state testing programs with strong emphasis on the content areas
reader response
Reader Response
  • Review the story
  • Select a sentence or phrase that lingers
  • Write down two reasons for selecting that
  • Share your sentence and reasons w/others
  • Come to consensus
  • Be prepared to share to group
what is being done
What is being done?
  • Mandatory summer school
  • Same thing, but LOUDER
  • Expensive intervention programs with uneven results
  • Teacher training institutions changing reading requirements
five steps to two years growth for one year of instruction
Five Steps to Two Years’ Growth for One Year of Instruction
  • Vertical team study of k-8 reading curriculum with evidence of student work
  • Phonics training for 3rd through 8th grade teachers
  • Vocabulary instruction training geared more toward “word harvest”
  • Ready availability of compelling leveled text with conditional assessment
  • Classroom management strategies that provide intensity and focus for below level readers
the goal show improvement
The Goal: Show Improvement
  • Growth triggers funding
  • Data is the gatekeeper
  • No improvement: no money
  • Show enough growth to secure funding
  • What will be considered growth?
what you can do in the classroom
What you can do in the classroom?
  • Discipline
    • Use the adult voice first, then the parent voice.
    • To avoid arguments with parents and students, use the adult voice.
    • Use discipline interventions as an opportunity for instruction.
    • Use the parent voice to stop behaviors. Use the parent voice to change behaviors.
useful references
Useful References
  • Adams, M.J. (2000). Beginning to Read: thinking and learning about print. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
  • Alexander, K. & Entwisle, D. (1996). Schools and children at risk. In A. Booth & J. Dunn (Eds.). Family-school links: How do they affect educational outcomes? Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • Baker, L. (1994). Contexts of emergent literacy: Everyday home experiences of urban pre-kindergarten children. College Park, MD: National Reading Research Center.
  • Baker, L., D. Scher, and K. Mackler. (1997). Home and family influences on motivations for reading. Educational Psychologist 32(2): 69:82.
  • Burns, M.S., Griffin, P., & Snow, C.E. (1999). Starting out right: A guide to promoting children’s reading success. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
  • Baker, L., Allen. J., Schockley, B, Pelligrini, A.D., Galda, L. & Stahl, S. (1996). Connecting school and home: Constructing partnerships to foster reading development in L. Baker, P. Afflerbach & D. Reinking (Eds.), Developing engaged readers in home and school communities, Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum, pp. 21-41.
Burns, M.S., Griffin, P., & Snow, C.E. (1999). Starting out right: A Guide to promoting children’s reading success. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Bus. A.G., M.H. van Ijzendoorn, and A.D. Pellegrini. (1995). Joint book reading makes for success in learning to read: A meta-analysis on intergenerational transmission of literacy. Review of Educational Research: 65(1): 1-21.

Center for the Improvement of Early Reading Achievement. (2001). Put reading first: The research building blocks for teaching children to read. Jessup, MD: Partnership for Reading. Available:

Edwards, P.A. (1995). Empowering low income mothers and fathers to share books with young children. The reading teacher 48: 4888-564.

Epstein, J.L., Coates, L., Salinas, K.C., Sanders, M.G., & Simmons, B.S. (1997). School, family and community partnerships: Your handbook for action. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Gallimore, R., & Goldenberg, C. (1993). Activity settings of early literacy: Home and school factors in children’s emergent literacy. In E. Forman, N. Minick, & A. Stone (Eds.), Contexts for learning: Sociocultural dynamics in children’s development (pp. 315-335). New York: Oxford University Press.

Gentile, L. M., & McMillan, M.M. (1992). Literacy for students at-risk; Developing critical dialogues. Journal of Reading, 35, 636-640.
  • Hart, Betty & Risley, Todd R. (1995). Meaningful Differences in the Everyday Experience of Young American Children. Paul H Brookes Pub Co.
  • Lyon, G.R. (1998). Overview of reading and literacy initiatives. Testimony Provided to the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate. Bethesda, MD: National Institute of child Health and Human Development.
  • Moats, L. (1999, June). Teaching Reading is Rocket Science. Wahington, DC: American Federation of Teachers. Available online: National Center for Education Statistics (1998). Characteristics of children’s early care and Education programs: Data from, the 1995 National Household Education Surveys (NCES No. 98-128).
  • National Reading Panel. (1999). Teaching children to read: An evidence-based Assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction: Reports of the subgroups. Washington DC: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. Available:
  • O’Donnell, M.P., & Wood, M. (1992). Becoming a reader: A developmental instruction. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Oldfather, P. & Wigfield, A. (1996). Children’s motivations for literacy learning in Developing. In L. Baker, C. Afflorbach & D. Reinking (Eds.). Developing engaged readers in home and school communities. (pp. 89-113, Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  • Riley, J. (1996). The teaching of reading, London: Paul Chapman.
  • Robbins, C., and L.C. Ehri. (1994). Reading storybooks to kindergarteners helps them learn new vocabulary words. Journal of Educational Psychology 86(1): 54-64.
  • Snow, Catherine E., M. Susan Burns, and Peg Griffin. (1998). Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children. Washington D.C., National Academy Press.
  • Sonnenschein, S., Brody, G., & Munsterman, K. (1996). The influence of family beliefs and practices on children’s early reading development, In L. Baker, P. Afflerback & D. Reinking (Eds.). Developing engaged readers in home and school communities. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum. PP. 3-20.
  • U.S. Department of Education. (1999). Start early, finish strong: How to help every child become a reader (America Reads Challenge), Washington, D.C.: author. Available online:
take me out to the ballgame
Take Me Out to the Ballgame
  • Take out to the ballgame
  • Take me out to the crowd
  • Buy me some peanuts and crackerjacks
  • I don’t care if I ever get back
  • Let me root, root ,root for the home team
  • If they don’t win it’s a shame
  • For it’s one, two, three strikes you’re out
  • At the old ball game
what is fluency
What is fluency
  • Attaching sounds quickly to letters
  • Blending and segmenting quickly
  • Knowing most of the words you are reading
  • Paying attention
your students the practice
Your students the practice
  • Give your students the prac-tice,
  • To read with ease and con-fi-dence
  • And wa----tch ac-c-u-ra-cy and
  • Un-der-sta-a-a-n-ding. Soar by:
  • Mo-del flu-et read-ing
  • Do re-pea-ted read-ing
  • Promote phrased read-ing
  • En-list tu-tors (to help)
  • And try readers’ theater in class
the challenge1
The Challenge
  • 37% of all 8th graders scored below Basic on the NAEP
  • After third grade, the achievement gap with minority, second language, and low-income learners widens substantially
  • The prospect of exit exams yields an increase in drop-outs