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INCINERATION . a CRUCIAL STEP in WASTE RECOVERY. Waste = problem. Waste = NUISANCE + resources NUISANCES Bulky Disagreeable (visual, olfactory, …) Health risks (epidemic) Environmental Risk Resources Energy Materials

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incineration
INCINERATION

a CRUCIAL STEPin WASTERECOVERY

FEAD seminar inEcotech 2003, Amsterdam , 14 May 2003 :

ENERGY-FROM-WASTE, A Secure and Sustainable Energy Source

waste problem
Waste = problem
  • Waste = NUISANCE + resources
    • NUISANCES
      • Bulky
      • Disagreeable (visual, olfactory, …)
      • Health risks (epidemic)
      • Environmental Risk
    • Resources
      • Energy
      • Materials
  • Waste Policy : share out the money available as well as possible in order to
    • REDUCE PRODUCTION
    • MINIMISE POLLUTION potential
    • OPTIMISE RECOVERY

FEAD seminar inEcotech 2003, Amsterdam , 14 May 2003 :

ENERGY-FROM-WASTE, A Secure and Sustainable Energy Source

incineration nuisance abatement

100

waste

10

Bottom ashes

1

FlueGas Cleaning Residues

Incineration è Nuisance abatement
  • Volume REDUCTION

from 10 to 1 : and even from 100 to 1 :

Historicalgoal

FEAD seminar inEcotech 2003, Amsterdam , 14 May 2003 :

ENERGY-FROM-WASTE, A Secure and Sustainable Energy Source

incineration nuisance abatement1
Incineration è Nuisance abatement
  • Put an end to unpleasantness
    • Abatement of
      • olfactory

& Nuisances

      • visual

Historicalgoal

FEAD seminar inEcotech 2003, Amsterdam , 14 May 2003 :

ENERGY-FROM-WASTE, A Secure and Sustainable Energy Source

incineration nuisance abatement2
Incineration è Nuisance abatement

MAJORBENEFIT

Hygiene

  • Destruction of biological pollutants
    • Viruses
    • Microbes
    • Bacteria
    • Prions

Historicalgoal

FEAD seminar inEcotech 2003, Amsterdam , 14 May 2003 :

ENERGY-FROM-WASTE, A Secure and Sustainable Energy Source

incineration nuisance abatement3
Health and Environment

Concentration and capturing of chemical pollutants

Fine particles

Heavy Metals

Dioxins

No accumulation of pollution for future generations

Incineration è Nuisance abatement

Moderngoal (80’s)

FEAD seminar inEcotech 2003, Amsterdam , 14 May 2003 :

ENERGY-FROM-WASTE, A Secure and Sustainable Energy Source

incineration nuisance abatement4

Incineration

Incineration

Incineration è Nuisance abatement
  • Protection of the Planet
    • Reduction of the greenhouse effect

Moderngoal (90’s)

FEAD seminar inEcotech 2003, Amsterdam , 14 May 2003 :

ENERGY-FROM-WASTE, A Secure and Sustainable Energy Source

incineration recovery
Incineration è Recovery
  • Recovery of Materials
    • Ferrous (incineration : greatest source of scrap iron from waste)
    • Non ferrous (Al, Cu)
    • Inert materials

Today : road construction

Tomorrow : concrete …

Moderngoal (70-90’s)

FEAD seminar inEcotech 2003, Amsterdam , 14 May 2003 :

ENERGY-FROM-WASTE, A Secure and Sustainable Energy Source

incineration recovery1
Incineration è Recovery
  • Generation of energy

+ Economy of financial resources

+ Economy of the planet’s resources

+ Pollution avoided (greenhouse effect, SOx, …)

Moderngoal (70-90’s)

FEAD seminar inEcotech 2003, Amsterdam , 14 May 2003 :

ENERGY-FROM-WASTE, A Secure and Sustainable Energy Source

emissions calories of such low toxicity

National Legislation

National Legislation

EC Directives 8-1989

EC Directive 12-2000

Emissions : caloriesof such low toxicity

Waste = Pollutants ð Maximum surveillance

ðstricter and stricter legislation

ðone of thecleanest activities

FEAD seminar inEcotech 2003, Amsterdam , 14 May 2003 :

ENERGY-FROM-WASTE, A Secure and Sustainable Energy Source

10 mw boiler

1

2

Gas

3

Waste

Oil

4

Coal

10 MW Boiler

10 MW - Waste is cleaner than fossil fuels

Waste Coal Oil Gas

Dust 2nd 4th 3rd 1st

CO 2nd 4th 3rd 1st

Acids2nd 3rd 3rd 1st

Metals 3rd 2nd 4th 1st

Dioxins 4th 3rd 2nd 1st

FEAD seminar inEcotech 2003, Amsterdam , 14 May 2003 :

ENERGY-FROM-WASTE, A Secure and Sustainable Energy Source

dioxins public subject
Dioxins : public subject

FEAD seminar inEcotech 2003, Amsterdam , 14 May 2003 :

ENERGY-FROM-WASTE, A Secure and Sustainable Energy Source

dioxins recognised as solved by the european commission
Dioxins : Recognised as solvedby the European Commission

HealthImpact Studies

  • 0,1 ng/Nm3Þ « Negligible risk »

“… providing that this legislation is enforced by Member States, a high level of protection will be ensured.”

  • 0,1 ng/Nm3 : can easily be achieved continuously in incineration plants

“From a purely technical point of view, dioxin emissions from some processes, such as waste incineration, can be better controlled than emissions from other processes.”

Quotations taken from the Answer given byMrs. Wallström on behalf of the Commission (12 July 2002)to a WRITTEN QUESTION (E-1585/02, 04.06.2002)to the Commission by Caroline Jackson (PPE-DE)

Incineration : ELV

Other industrialsectors : BAT

Technicallysolved

FEAD seminar inEcotech 2003, Amsterdam , 14 May 2003 :

ENERGY-FROM-WASTE, A Secure and Sustainable Energy Source

dioxins rapid decrease efficient abatement
“According to the ‘European Dioxin Emission Inventory,Stage II’ (Landesumweltamt Nordrhein-Westfalen, December 2000), funded by the Commission,incinerationof municipal solid wastes has experienced arapid decreaseof dioxin and furan emissions to air during the last decadedue to efficient abatement measures :

dioxin emission levels in 2000 have decreased by 58 % compared to the levels in 1995 and they foresee a decrease of 81% comparing the levels of 1995 to 2005”Mrs. Wallström

500g/an

300g/an

200

160

5 g/an

1998

1999

1997

2006

2000

Dioxins : rapid decrease, efficient abatement

France

FEAD seminar inEcotech 2003, Amsterdam , 14 May 2003 :

ENERGY-FROM-WASTE, A Secure and Sustainable Energy Source

main concern uncontrolled burning
Main concern : Uncontrolled burning

“For the industrial sources a considerable emission reduction has been achieved (based on current trends and activities it is foreseen that thetarget set in the 5th Environment Action Programme of a 90% reduction will be nearly realised in 2005 compared to the levels in 1985).

But, for the non-industrial sources (domestic solid fuel burning, domestic waste burning, fires, etc.) the rate of emission reduction is much lower.

The relation between industrial and non-industrial sources is shifting towards growing importance of non-industrial sources”

Mrs. Wallström on behalf of the Commission

FEAD seminar inEcotech 2003, Amsterdam , 14 May 2003 :

ENERGY-FROM-WASTE, A Secure and Sustainable Energy Source

dioxins miscellaneous sources
Dioxins - miscellaneous sources
  • Incomplete combustion !
  • Low temperatures ! In the de novo synthesis windows, 250 to 400 °C !
  • Combustion when Clis present
    • Existed at all times(ice North Pole 8.000 years)
  • Domestic
    • Backyard burning
    • Ditch fires, …
  • Unauthorized
    • Tyres, …
    • Animal carcass Pyres!

63 g in the UK !

FEAD seminar inEcotech 2003, Amsterdam , 14 May 2003 :

ENERGY-FROM-WASTE, A Secure and Sustainable Energy Source

greenhouse effect win on all sides

W I N

W I N

W I N

  • 5 to 10 MteqCO2/yr in France
Greenhouse effect : win on all sides

CH4 avoided :Greenhouse effect < 0

CO2 from biomass = 0

Fossil C remainssequestered

FEAD seminar inEcotech 2003, Amsterdam , 14 May 2003 :

ENERGY-FROM-WASTE, A Secure and Sustainable Energy Source

all types of impact studies
All Types of Impact Studies

FEAD seminar inEcotech 2003, Amsterdam , 14 May 2003 :

ENERGY-FROM-WASTE, A Secure and Sustainable Energy Source

energy consume in moderation
Energy : consume in moderation

Finite reserves :

  • maxi : 3.000 Gbl
  • mini : 1.700 Gbl
    • Of which800 Gblalready consumed

[1 Gbl = 1 Giga baril = 109 baril (of oil)]

FEAD seminar inEcotech 2003, Amsterdam , 14 May 2003 :

ENERGY-FROM-WASTE, A Secure and Sustainable Energy Source

energy until when can we deplete resources
Energy : until when can we deplete resources?

2050 - 2150 :

Drying up

of the

planet’s energy

FEAD seminar inEcotech 2003, Amsterdam , 14 May 2003 :

ENERGY-FROM-WASTE, A Secure and Sustainable Energy Source

energy the parents drink the children pay
Energy : “The parents drink … … the children pay”

The generations which will suffer the results of our actions will still have

Our portraits

Hanging above the fireplace

FEAD seminar inEcotech 2003, Amsterdam , 14 May 2003 :

ENERGY-FROM-WASTE, A Secure and Sustainable Energy Source

self sustaining combustion
Self sustaining combustion
  • What quantity of energy is needed to burn 1 ton of household waste ?
  • Most people think a lot
  • What about you ?

FEAD seminar inEcotech 2003, Amsterdam , 14 May 2003 :

ENERGY-FROM-WASTE, A Secure and Sustainable Energy Source

a final renewable energy

1 tonneof Waste

Gas oil : 200 l

If :

1 tonneof sorting residue

Gas oil: 220 l

A final (?) renewable energy

FEAD seminar inEcotech 2003, Amsterdam , 14 May 2003 :

ENERGY-FROM-WASTE, A Secure and Sustainable Energy Source

energy from waste a significant source

6 %of the planet’s

resources saved

6 %of the petrol

bill

Energy-from-Waste : a significant source
  • Petrol consumption of France : 90 Mtoe(M tonne of oil equivalent)
  • Energy recovery
    • Today 1 Mtoe : 1 %
    • Tomorrow 5 Mtoe : 6 %

FEAD seminar inEcotech 2003, Amsterdam , 14 May 2003 :

ENERGY-FROM-WASTE, A Secure and Sustainable Energy Source

what importance amongst renewable energies
What importance amongst renewable energies ?

Mtoe

  • Hydroelectricity 11
  • Wood 8
  • Waste1 è 5 ?
  • Heat pumps 1
  • Geothermal 0,4
  • Solar, wind, waves 0,05
  • TOTAL 21,5
  • Summer / winter (daylight saving) 0,3

FEAD seminar inEcotech 2003, Amsterdam , 14 May 2003 :

ENERGY-FROM-WASTE, A Secure and Sustainable Energy Source

so should we burn everything

}

25 % à 40 %

So, should we burn everything ?
  • Burn everything ? Certainly NOT !
  • BURN WHAT THEN ?
    • Give priority to a better use of waste when possible:
      • Reuse
      • Material and organic recycling
      • Landfill
    • The rest to Energy recovery : 60 % à 75 %

FEAD seminar inEcotech 2003, Amsterdam , 14 May 2003 :

ENERGY-FROM-WASTE, A Secure and Sustainable Energy Source

thermal treatment a 2 nd opportunity to recover

2nd service

Thermal Treatment :a 2nd opportunity to recover

Thermal treatment

is best suited to that which remains after other treatments

(the part which contains the majority of the pollutants)

Itrecovers

the RESIDUES and NON-RECYCLABLE part from sorting

FEAD seminar inEcotech 2003, Amsterdam , 14 May 2003 :

ENERGY-FROM-WASTE, A Secure and Sustainable Energy Source

the war between treatment options has no reason to exist
The WAR between treatment OPTIONS has no reason to exist
  • Today all are convinced that :

the OPTIONS are COMPLEMENTARY

and not competitive

=> FLEXIBILITY (MULTIPLE OPTIONS)

  • Distributed according to

ECONOMIC & ENVIRONMENTAL OPTIMISATION

FEAD seminar inEcotech 2003, Amsterdam , 14 May 2003 :

ENERGY-FROM-WASTE, A Secure and Sustainable Energy Source

how to optimise

To Optimise

¹

To Maximise

How to optimise ?
  • This is THE question of the moment
  • Optimal ‘environmental et economic’

depends onCOMPLETE ECO-ASSESSMENTS

  • These indispensabletools for use in decision-making are conspicuous in their absence
  • Public authorities musturgently develop them

­ today

¯ when ?

FEAD seminar inEcotech 2003, Amsterdam , 14 May 2003 :

ENERGY-FROM-WASTE, A Secure and Sustainable Energy Source

current affairs when the eu meddles

! ! !

!

!

!

IGNORANCE of the TECHNIQUE and PRECONCEIVED IDEAS !

Current affairs :When the EU meddles !
  • EU since 1996 : RECOVERY ¹ DISPOSAL !
  • Court Decision EU 2/2003 based on the Primary Objective !
    • Cement Kiln for cement Þ Recovery
    • Municipal Waste Incinerator Þ NORecovery ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
  • Diverges from Incineration Directive which requires recovery if incineration takes places
  • Looking for an ON/OFF border ‘test’ for trans-frontier transfers of waste : this system does not offer env. protection

FEAD seminar inEcotech 2003, Amsterdam , 14 May 2003 :

ENERGY-FROM-WASTE, A Secure and Sustainable Energy Source

clarify the notion of recovery
Clarify the notion of RECOVERY
  • RECOVERY Ì DISPOSAL
  • 3 levels in the EU texts
    • INTENTION to Recover (collected for sending to a sorting centre)
    • EFFECTIVE RECOVERY (OUT / IN ratio)
    • ENVIRONMENTAL RECOVERY (integrated, multiple parameters)
  • RECOVERY based on the RESULT and not on the intention
  • RECOVERY not on an ON/OFF basis, but in %age
  • RECOVERY should be judged on the whole chain and not on only one link (e.g.: sorting alone)

FEAD seminar inEcotech 2003, Amsterdam , 14 May 2003 :

ENERGY-FROM-WASTE, A Secure and Sustainable Energy Source

further explanations
Further explanations ?

FEAD seminar inEcotech 2003, Amsterdam , 14 May 2003 :

ENERGY-FROM-WASTE, A Secure and Sustainable Energy Source

questions

Questions ?

FEAD seminar inEcotech 2003, Amsterdam , 14 May 2003 :

ENERGY-FROM-WASTE, A Secure and Sustainable Energy Source

d chets en france
Déchets en France
  • MUNICIPAUX 50 Mt/an
    • O.M. et assimilés (en 2000) 27
    • Autres déchets municipaux 23
      • des ménages : dangereux, verts, inertes
      • de voirie et assainissement
  • DIB, DASRI, Automobile 113
  • DIS 7
  • Agricoles, Industriels dits inertes 480
  • TOTAL650 Mt/an

FEAD seminar inEcotech 2003, Amsterdam , 14 May 2003 :

ENERGY-FROM-WASTE, A Secure and Sustainable Energy Source

om en europe
OM en Europe
  • France : OM et assimilés (en 2000) 27 Mt/an
    • i.e. 440 kg/an.hab
  • UE : 165 Mt/an
    • Allemagne 41 Mt/an, GB 27 Mt/an, Italie 25 Mt/an, …
  • Mais évaluation approx.
    • déf. des catégories différentes selon payset Même à l’intérieur du même pays

FEAD seminar inEcotech 2003, Amsterdam , 14 May 2003 :

ENERGY-FROM-WASTE, A Secure and Sustainable Energy Source

fili res de traitement des om et assimil s
Filières de traitementdes OM et assimilés
  • France O.M. strictes O.M. & traités avec(22,6 Mt/an) (45,3 Mt/an)
    • Décharge 47 % 56 %
    • Incinération 44 % 27 %
      • avec ValEne 24 %
      • sans ValEne 3 %
    • Recyclage mat. … 11 %
    • Trait. Bio. 8 % 9 %

FEAD seminar inEcotech 2003, Amsterdam , 14 May 2003 :

ENERGY-FROM-WASTE, A Secure and Sustainable Energy Source

incin rateurs
Incinérateurs
  • Nombre
    • France 123 ( en 1/2003)
    • Allemagne 61
    • Danemark 34
    • Italie 32
    • Suède 22
    • Pays-bas 11

FEAD seminar inEcotech 2003, Amsterdam , 14 May 2003 :

ENERGY-FROM-WASTE, A Secure and Sustainable Energy Source

capacit s
France (2003)

> 6 t/h 80

< 6 t/h, conformes Arrêté 91 43

< 6 t/h, non conformes 0

Évolution du parc français Capacité totale stable

300 usines en 1996

250 en 1998

123 en 1/2003

Tendance :

PETITS fours « artisanaux » et polluantsFERMÉS

DAVANTAGE de GRANDS fours « industriels » à IMPACT NEGLIGEABLE

!

AMALGAME !

Capacités

FEAD seminar inEcotech 2003, Amsterdam , 14 May 2003 :

ENERGY-FROM-WASTE, A Secure and Sustainable Energy Source

plages de capacit
Plages de capacité
  • Tonnage
    • Grandes : 12 à 30 t/h

Maxi 50 t/h (Ivry 2 x 50 t/h)

    • Moyennes : 6 à 12 t/h env.
    • Petites : 2,5 à 6

< 2,5 t/h : plus industriel

  • PCI
    • 1.400 à 3000 kcal/kg
    • Typiquement : 1800 – 2000 (O.M. brutes), 2200 – 2400 (O.M. triées)

FEAD seminar inEcotech 2003, Amsterdam , 14 May 2003 :

ENERGY-FROM-WASTE, A Secure and Sustainable Energy Source

tr s nombreux acteurs
MO (Maîtres d’Ouvrage)

Communes, Syndicats, C. Gal, C. Ral

Elus et Fonctionnaires

mo (Maîtres d’Œuvre) et AMO (Assistants MO)

BE (Bureaux d’études)

Services de l’Etat

Législateurs (Nal, UE)

Exploitants (parfois DSP, i.e. délégataires)

Constructeurs

Public, vecteurs d’opinion, associatifs

!

Très nombreux acteurs

COMPLEXE :

Processusdécisionnairetrès long

FEAD seminar inEcotech 2003, Amsterdam , 14 May 2003 :

ENERGY-FROM-WASTE, A Secure and Sustainable Energy Source

entreprises
FNADE (Fédération Nationale des Activités de Dépollution et de l’Environnement)

7 Syndicats

Constructeurs

Exploitants

Services

280 entreprises privées

37.000 salariés

CA : 6 milliards €

Membre de FEAD (UE)

  • Hubert de Chefdebien
    • A, SNIDE (Constr.), SVDU (Expl.), FNADE, FEAD
Entreprises

FEAD seminar inEcotech 2003, Amsterdam , 14 May 2003 :

ENERGY-FROM-WASTE, A Secure and Sustainable Energy Source

diagramme de grille
Diagramme de Grille

POINT NOMINAL

30

3.000 kcal/kg12.560 kJ/kg

28

2.200 kcal/kg9.211 kJ/kg

26

24

23 Gcal/h

22

20

1.400 kcal/kg

5.861 kJ/kg

CHALEUR BRUTE , Gcal/h

18

16

14

12

10

10 t/h

5

6

7

8

9

10

12

(1 kcal = 4,1868 kJ 1 Gcal = 109 cal)

DEBIT DE DECHETS, t/h

FEAD seminar inEcotech 2003, Amsterdam , 14 May 2003 :

ENERGY-FROM-WASTE, A Secure and Sustainable Energy Source

evolution de la r glementation
Evolution de la réglementation

FEAD seminar inEcotech 2003, Amsterdam , 14 May 2003 :

ENERGY-FROM-WASTE, A Secure and Sustainable Energy Source

greenhouse effect and one

SHORT

CYCLEof C :~ 1 to 100years

Decompositionorcombustion

Greenhouse effect : and one !

75% of the Carbon in waste = biomass

Combustion of biomass :

No increase of the greenhouse effect

FEAD seminar inEcotech 2003, Amsterdam , 14 May 2003 :

ENERGY-FROM-WASTE, A Secure and Sustainable Energy Source

greenhouse effect and two
Greenhouse effect : and two !

Combustionof wasteC ®CO2

Fermentationof waste C ®CH4

Greenhouse effect(mass, 50 yrs)

1 CH4 ~ 60 CO2

CH4 avoided :

negative contribution

To greenhouse effect

Combustion: 1 C ®1 eq. CO2Fermentation

avecrécup. biogaz : 1 C ®2,8 eq. CO2

sansrécup. biogaz : 1 C ®5,2 eq. CO2

FEAD seminar inEcotech 2003, Amsterdam , 14 May 2003 :

ENERGY-FROM-WASTE, A Secure and Sustainable Energy Source

greenhouse effect and three

Very LONG

CYCLE

from C :> 1.000.000yrs

C.Fossil30 106 yrs

Greenhouse effect : and three !

Recovery of energy-from-waste = economy in fossil fuels

Fossil carbon remains sequestered :

No growth of the greenhouse effect

FEAD seminar inEcotech 2003, Amsterdam , 14 May 2003 :

ENERGY-FROM-WASTE, A Secure and Sustainable Energy Source

inventaire par secteur qq m taux et pop caract ristiques

Métaux

POP

Poussières (1994)

Tr. therm. déchets :3,5 %des poussières

As Cr Hg Pb Zn HAP

CdCu Ni Se Diox

100 %

émissionsFrance

Trait. thermique des déchets

1,8% 0,5% 49% 1,4% 11,8% 0,14%

23% 5,8% 0,6%0,4% 30%

Inventaire par secteur : qq. métaux et POP caractéristiques

Corinair 1990, France (avanttraitement des fumées)

FEAD seminar inEcotech 2003, Amsterdam , 14 May 2003 :

ENERGY-FROM-WASTE, A Secure and Sustainable Energy Source

inventaire par secteur contribution modeste

SO2 COV CO N2O

NOx CH4 CO2 NH3

Gaz acides

100%

émissionsFrance

Tr. therm. déchets :40 % du HCl 1990,i.e. 3,5 % des acides

Aujourd'hui : TFÞ20 à 100 fois moinsde HCl

Trait. thermique des déchets

1,5% 0,3% 2,1% 0,04%

1,5% 0,4% 2,1%0,0%

Inventaire par secteur : contribution modeste

Corinair 1990, France (avanttraitement des fumées)

FEAD seminar inEcotech 2003, Amsterdam , 14 May 2003 :

ENERGY-FROM-WASTE, A Secure and Sustainable Energy Source

example of nox

2200 g NOx / yr

2200 g NOx / 900 km

2200 g NOx / 5500 km

Example of NOx

q = 1

1 ton / yr

burnt

q = 22

q = 3,6

20.000 km / yr

with

without

2,5 g NOx/km

0,4 g NOx/km

catalytic converter

FEAD seminar inEcotech 2003, Amsterdam , 14 May 2003 :

ENERGY-FROM-WASTE, A Secure and Sustainable Energy Source