Grade 7 Religious Education CHAPTER 3: Living Faiths in the World HINDUISM BUDDHISM ISLAM (Muslim) Traditional INNU
Hinduism originated around the Indus River in northwest India, then spread throughout India. India ishome to 80% of the world’s Hindus. The other 20% is in small pockets around the world.
There are almost 800 million Hindus in India alone and several millions more reside in countries all over the world. Ten Commitments of Hinduism: 1. Ahimsa - do no harm2. Satya - do not lie3. Asteya - do not steal4. Brahmacharya - do not overindulge5. Aparigraha - do not be greedy6. Saucha - be clean7. Santosha - be content 8. Tapas - be self-disciplined9. Svadhyaya - study10. Ishvara Pranidhana - surrender to God What should this remind you of ?
Hindu society has long been controlled by the caste system, which binds individuals to occupations and circles of social contact. Four major classes exist: • Brahmin (priests) • Kshatriya (warriors / rulers) • Vaishya (merchants) • Shudra (labourers / servants) • The rest are considered outcaste (untouchables). There are thousands of castes within these divisions, even though caste barriers are officially (but ineffectively) outlawed in India.
Hindu holy days and festivals follow a lunisolar calendar. Dates vary from year to year. Examples include: • Diwali. Known as the festival of lights, this commemorates the return of Lord Rama from His exile in the forest. It is, for many traditions, a new-year celebration. It takes place between late October and the middle of November. • Dussehra. A celebration of good conquering evil, this festival lasts ten days and takes place between late September and the middle of October. • Holi. A spring festival to celebrate creation and renewal.
There is no particular day of worship in Hinduism. To Hindus, every day is a day of worship.
The fundamental beliefs shared by all Hindus are: • the existence ofOne God: God is One, but He manifests differently at different times to different people according to their need and faith. • the Law ofKarma: Whatever one sows, one reaps. Karma puts the full burden of one’s salvation on one’s own shoulders. Good living bestows good karma and bad living brings bad karma. • the Cycle ofReincarnation: The soul is indestructible, eternal, deathless. Only the body decays. The soul takes on a new body according to its karma. The goal of all created beings is to reach God and escape this endless cycle of birth and death. This reaching of God is called Moksha (Freedom).
The largest religious gathering on Earth. About 70 million Hindus from around the world participated in Kumbh Melaat one of the Hindu Holy cities, Prayag, India.
There are 350 million Buddhists worldwide, concentrated in three distinct areas of Asia: • Nepal and Tibet • Japan • Thailand, Vietnam, and Cambodia
Buddhism developed from Hinduism. It was a protest against elements of the Hindu religion, rejecting the caste system and the authority of the Vedas, but keeping the ideas of karma, rebirth and liberation, which Buddhists call Nirvana.
Buddhists do not worship gods. They believe that the path to enlightenment is found by personal spiritual development.
Typically when worshiping in the home, a Buddhist will have a Buddha statue, candles and an incense burner.
Founder of Buddhism: Siddhartha Gautama. • It is believed that he lived from 566 to 483 BCE. • He has several accepted titles: • The Buddha • The Enlightened One • The Awakened One • God
Buddhists believe in the Four Noble Truths: • Life is Suffering. Human existence is painful. Death does not bring an end to suffering because of the cycle of death and rebirth. • Suffering is caused by craving and attachment. Selfish cravings and attachments are the cause of our suffering. • Craving and attachment can be overcome. Completely transcending selfish craving ceases suffering and allows one to enter the state of Nirvana. • The path towards the cessation of craving and attachment is the Eightfold Path: • Right Understanding • Right Purpose • Right Speech • Right Conduct • Right Livelihood • Right Effort • Right Alertness • Right Concentration.
A Buddhist Temple must have a statue of the Buddha. The temples are built to reflect The FiveElements (fire, air, earth, water, and wisdom). Buddhist Temples are called Stupa and are made of stone. This giant statue of the Buddha stands in Sri Lanka, the only South Asian nation that is still predominantly Buddhist.
There is a wide variety of Buddhist denominations in the world, each with different celebrations. Examples include: • Nirvana Day. Celebrated on the 15th February, it is the date that Buddhist observe his passing. • Buddha Day. This is the celebration of the Buddha’s birth. It occurs on the April 8th. • Bodhi Day. This day marks the day that Siddhartha sat under the tree (a Bodhi tree) and eventually attained enlightenment. • Main Ideas of Buddhism: • Karma - a cosmic law of “reaping what you sow” • Reincarnation - rebirth
This statue depicts a group of supernatural 'cobra' demons, protecting the Buddha from a rainstorm.
Islam began in the 7th century CE, in Saudi Arabia. Within 100 years of Muhammad’s death, Islam had spread to India, as well as the eastern and southern parts of the Mediterranean, including Spain.
Islam is a monotheistic reform movement of traditional Arabian religion, heavily coloured by the Jewish Torah and to a lesser extent by the Christian New Testament.
Major Islamic Subgroups: Sunni (85%) Shia (Shiites) (15%) Shiites Muslims are more strict religiously than the Shia.
Founder of Islam: Muhammad (570-632 CE). • Muhammad was born in Makkah in the year 570, at a time when Christianity was not yet fully established in Europe. • His accepted titles include: • Prophet • Seal of the Prophets • Muslim God: Allah
A Mosque is a building used by Muslims for worship. • Muslims remove their shoes and perform Wudu (ritual washing) before entering a mosque to pray. • Internally, a Mosque is sparse, having little or no furniture, no artwork or statues. Islam does not allow any form of representation of Allah – to attempt to create an image of Allah is regarded as profane. • A niche is made on the wall which denotes the direction of Makkah – the direction in which people are to pray. This is called the Gibla Wall. Everyone is considered equal and all in attendance sit on the floor. Women may attend the mosque, but they sit separately from the men. • As one of the five pillars of faith, a Muslim is duty-bound to pray five times a day. These prayers do not have to be made within the walls of a Mosque. • During the prayer recital there are also ritual movements (Rak’ha) which should be performed. • Mosques offer talks on Fridays by the Iman (a Qur’anic scholar).
The Great Mosque of Djenné is the largest mud brick building in the world. It is located in the city of Djenné, Mali on the flood plain of the Bani River (Africa).
The main sacred text of Islam: The Qur’an (Koran) The Qur’an is Allah’s message, given through his prophet, Muhammad.
A few of the major Qur’anic teachings: • The Qur’an teaches that Muslims are obliged to be God’s servants and to spread God’s message. This obligation is to the individual as well as to the community at large. • The Holy Scripture also stresses that all individuals are equal before Allah and places a large obligation for the rich to help the poor in society. • Qur’anic revelation also raised the status of women in marriage, divorce and inheritance. “Men and women are equal in the eyes of God; man and woman were created to be equal parts of a pair” (51:49) • The Scripture stresses pluralism and tolerance – that God has created many nations and peoples. It clearly and strongly states that “there is to be no compulsion in religion” (2:256) • Heaven and hell await mankind’s final judgment at the end of time
The Five Pillars of Islam: • Shahadah - Confession of one’s faith in God and in his Prophet Muhammad. “There is no God but God; Muhammad is the Prophet of God”. • Salat - Ritual Worship. Prayer five times daily (before sunrise, after midday, at mid-afternoon, shortly after sunset and in the fullness of night). • Zakat - Almsgiving. A Zakat (purification tax) on property is paid by all Muslims for the benefit of the poor. • Sawm - Fasting. Fasting is observed during the holy month of Ramadan • Hajj - Pilgrimage. All Muslims of sound body and mind who can afford the journey are expected to make a Hajj to the holy city of Makkah (Mecca).
The Kaba is the building towards which Muslims face 5 times a day, everyday, in prayer. Here, worshippers touch the stones of the Kaba.
Like most religions, Islamic rituals observe some of the major events in a persons life: • Akikah. An informal birth ceremony. This ceremony is not practiced widely. • Shadada. The marking of a young Muslim’s formal entry into Islam. While there is no set age for this rite, it is usually celebrated during the teens. • Marriage Ritual. Witnesses observe the groom’s formal offer of marriage and the bride’s acceptance of it. There is no elaborate ceremony. The Waleemah is the reception which includes music and dancing. • Funerals and Mourning. This includes the recitation of the Janazah (prayers for the dead) at the gravesite and may include a service at the funeral home. Muslims do not condone cremation. Burial takes place within 24 hours of death. The official mourning period for a family member is 40 days.
Muslim Holy Days and Festivals: • Ramadan. This Holy Festival takes place in the ninth month of the Islamic calendar. It is a time of fasting and daily repentance. • Lailat ul-Qadr. The final 10 days of Ramadan. Muslims celebrate Muhammad’s first revelation. • Id al-Fitr. The feast period just after the month long fast of Ramadan. It lasts for three days. • Id ul-Adha. Two to three months after Ramadan, animals are slaughtered to benefit the poor. This celebrates the faithfulness and obedience of Abraham. • Al-Isra Wal Miraj. Celebrated on the 27th Day of the 7th month in the Islamic Calendar. It marks Muhammad’s journey from Makkah. • Maulid al-Nabi. Celebrates the birth of Muhammad.
TRADITIONAL INNU Spirituality