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ACTION PLAN. REPLICATION OF DNA (XII P.M) BY FAIZA KHALID LECTURER IN BOTANY DACW PHASE VIII. RE PLICATION OF DNA. LONG TERM GOALS Adopt 21 st century approaches to enhance higher order thinking in students by: Giving self direction Communication skills

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action plan

ACTION PLAN

REPLICATION OF DNA

(XII P.M)

BY

FAIZA KHALID

LECTURER IN BOTANY

DACW PHASE VIII

re plication of dna
REPLICATION OF DNA

LONG TERM GOALS

Adopt 21st century approaches to enhance higher order thinking in students by:

  • Giving self direction
  • Communication skills
  • Observing & monitoring skills
  • Encouraging skills

SHORT TERM GOALS

  • Students will be able to understand the process of duplication of DNA in eukaryotes.
re plication of dna1
REPLICATION OF DNA

Instructional strategies

  • Firstly, I will tell them about the structure of DNA
  • Then explain them step by step the process of duplication by using charts.
  • I will show them power point presentation so that they would be able to know how duplication takes place.
  • Lastly, I will show them video on the process of duplication of DNA.
re plication of dna2
REPLICATION OF DNA

CHALLENGES

  • I may not find multimedia.
  • Management may not provide O.H.P. in class room.
  • Power plug board may be out of order.
  • White board may not be provided .
  • Shortage of power supply in hot summer days.
  • Sometimes chalk may not provide.
  • There may be some students who do not want to work/ learn.

SOLUTIONS

  • I will bring my own laptop.
  • I will arrange the class in the lab.
  • I will shift the class to some other place.
  • I will use the wall as white board /screen.
  • I will arrange my class in corridors.
  • I will bring my own chalk box.
  • I will focus by frequently ask questions to them.
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REPLICATION OF DNA

TIME LINE

  • Introduction to DNA - 10 min.
  • Structure of DNA - 30 min.
  • Discovery
  • Watson & Cricks model
  • Replication of DNA - 40 min.
  • Models of Replication
  • Steps of DNA replication
  • Enzymes involve in DNA replication
  • Speed of DNA replication
replication of dna
REPLICATION OF DNA
  • Learning objectives
  • To understand the functions of proteins responsible for DNA replication, including helicase, RNA primase, DNA polymerase, Rnase and DNA ligase.
  • To understand why the process of DNA replication and why the leading strand is synthesized continuously and the lagging strand is synthesized discontinuously.
structure of dna
STRUCTURE OF DNA
  • DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is the hereditary material in humans and almost all other organisms. Nearly every cell in a person’s body has the same DNA. Most DNA is located in the cell nucleus.
structure of dna1
STRUCTURE OF DNA
  • DNA is a double helix with sugar phosphate backbones on the outside and paired bases on the inside.
  • Together, a base, sugar, and phosphate are called a nucleotide.
  • DNA contains four different types of nitrogenous bases, two with purine bases, adenine(A) and guanine (G) which have a double ring, and two with pyrimidine bases, thymine (T) and cytosine (C) which have a single ring.
structure of dna2
STRUCTURE OF DNA
  • Chargaff,s rules said that
  • The amount of A, T, G and C in DNA varies from species to species.
  • In each species, the amount of A = T and

the amount of C= G are always equal.

  • The model shows that purine is hydrogen bonded to pyrimidine, two hydrogen bonds between A and T, while three hydrogen bonds between C and G.
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REPLICATION OF DNA

Before the start of cell division, the DNA material in the original cell must be duplicated so that after cell division, each new cell contains the full amount of DNA material. The process of DNA duplication is usually called replication

re plication of dna5
REPLICATION OF DNA

There are three models of DNA replication.

replication of dna1
REPLICATION OF DNA
  • DNA replication requires the concerted action of a number of proteins.
  • The proteins involved are clustered together in the cell.
  • The DNA to be copied is fed through the proteins of the replication factory.
  • The duplex DNA to be copied is first split into single strand.
  • Each of the two template strand is copied and becomes half of a new DNA double helix.
  • DNA replication is semi conservative.
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REPLICATION OF DNA
  • Steps of DNA replication
replication of dna2
REPLICATION OF DNA
  • Resources
      • Biology by Sylvia Mader
      • GRE Biology by Tim Leven
      • www. Wikipedia .com
      • www. Natural science.com