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Genetics. I . Introduction. A. History. 1. C. Darwin & A. Wallace  Blending. 2. G. Mendel & F. Unger  Mixing. 3. W. Sutton  Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance. 4. T. Morgan  Genes & Chromosomes plus linkage groups. 5. A. Sturtevant  Genetic Mapping.

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Genetics

I. Introduction

A. History

1. C. Darwin & A. Wallace  Blending

2. G. Mendel & F. Unger  Mixing

3. W. Sutton  Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance

4. T. Morgan  Genes & Chromosomes plus linkage groups

5. A. Sturtevant  Genetic Mapping

6. F. Griffith  Hereditary molecule

7. A. Jefferys  DNA finger printing

8. 2003  human DNA sequenced

slide2

II. Mendelian Genetics

A. Experimental Design

1. Monohybrid Cross

a. Definition

b. Terms

i. Self vs. Cross Fertilization

ii. Traits vs. Characteristics

Figure 9.2D

slide3

c. Process

Figure 9.2C

Figure 9.3A

slide4

Figure 9.4

Figure 9.3B

d. Principle  “Law of Segregation”

slide5

e. Terms

i. Gene versus Allele

iii. Dominant versus Recessive

iv. Genotype versus Phenotype

ii. Homozygous versus Heterozygous

slide6

f. Testcross

Figure 9.6

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2. Dihybrid Cross

a. Definition

i. Start by figuring out the parents genotypes

b. Process

ii. Then how many and type of gametes

Figure 9.5A

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Practice

Dihybrid Heterozygous cross =

AaBb X AaBb

Gametes AaBb = AB, Ab, aB, & ab for both

Phenotypic ratio= 9:3:3:1, Genotypic ratio= 1:1:2:2:4:2:2:1:1

Dihybrid Heterozygous cross Homozygous Dominant =

AaBb X AABB

Gametes AaBb = AB, Ab, aB, & ab; AABB= AB only

Phenotypic ratio = all dominant, Genotypic ratio = 1:1:1:1

c. Principle  “Law of Independent Assortment”

slide9

III. Variation on Mendel

A. Dominance

1. Complete

2. Co-dominance

AA

aa

Aa

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B. Gene Interactions

1. Multiple Alleles

2. Pleitrophy

Figure 9.13B

Figure 9.12

3. Penetrance

slide12

C. Beyond Mendel

1. Epistasis

2. Polygenic

Figure 9.14

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IV. Classical Genetics

A. History

1. R. Punnet & W. Bateson  1908

Figure 9.7

slide14

2. T. Morgan  Genes & Chromosomes, Karyotyping, plus linkage groups

a. Drosophila melanogaster

WHY?

Figure 9.18C

slide15

b. Genetic Recombination

Figure 9.18A

Figure 9.18C

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3. A. Sturtevant

a. Genetic Mapping

Based on frequency of expression of traits showing together

Figure 9.19A

Figure 9.19B

Figure 9.18C

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B. Sex Linkage

1. Sex Linked Inheritance

Figure 9.20A

Figure 9.20 B - E

Figure 15.7

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2. Barr Bodies

Figure 11.2B

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V. Detection of Problems

A. Techniques

1. Karyotyping

2. Amniocentesis == Cellular and Chemical Analysis

Figure 9.10A

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3. Ultrasound

Figure 9.10B

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6. Pedigree Analysis

Figure 9.8A & B