1.Difference between power and energy • Primary energy: Oil, Coal, Natural and Primary electricity • Secondary energy: Oil --- oil products like diesel and petrol, Coal --- coal briquette and coke • Primary electricity: nuclear, geothermal, wind, HEP Secondary electricity: electricity generated by burning fossil fuels
2. Energy resource base of China: 3rd largest in the world Coal reserves 114.5 billion tonnes, 11.6% of world total in 2000 Proven oil reserves 3.3 billion tonnes, 2.3% of world total in 2000 Proven natural gas reserves 48.3 trillion cu.ft, 0.9% of world total in 2000 HEP resources, largest in the world: developable 370,000 MW Per capita energy availability less than 1/2 of world average
3.Chinese energy production and consumption,2003 • Oil 169.6 million tonnes • Coal 1667 million tonnes • Natural gas 35.0 billion cu.m • Primary electricity 283.7 billion kwh • Total electricity 1,910.6 billion kwh • Total primary energy 1,603 billion tonnes of coal equivalent
3.Chinese energy production and consumption,2003 • Fuel mix, with respect to consumption, in 2003 -- Coal 67.1%; Oil 22.7%; Natural gas 2.8%; Primary electricity 7.4% Effects of this fuel mix: • Adversely affects efficiency of energy use • Pollution problems • Inadequate coal transportation capacity --- Coal accounts for 42% of total railroad freight, 22%of road freight, 25% of water freight and 30% of freight handled by coastal ports
4.Distribution of energy resources in China A. Over 85% of coal resources located north of Qinling and Huai He --- Over 60% in N China --- Less than 2% south of Yangtze B. Over ½ of oil reserves in North-east C. Natural gas resources: Proven reserves 1998 NW 31.3%, SE 20.9%, North 20.8%, NE 10.7% D. HEP South-west 71%
5.Per capita energy availability (all China=100) • North 416 • Noth-west 146 • East 22 • South-west 167 • North-east 40 • Central South 19
6.Movements of energy within China • North-west and South-west ---- Energy moved out • North-east ---- Oil moved out and coal moved in • North ---- Both oil and coal moved out • East and Central South ---- Energy has to be moved in
7. Distribution of Chinese Population & Economics Activities • Chinese population & economics activities along coastal provinces like Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, Shangdong, Shanghai, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Fujian and Guangdong. ---- Large Population ---- High level of economic development, including industries, agriculture, transportation system, trading and tourism etc. ---- High standard of living
7. Distribution of Chinese Population & Economics Activities • Hence, heavy consumption of energy & electricity along coastal provinces. • Example: in 2002, the four largest consumers of electricity--- Guangdong, Jiangsu, Shandong and Zhejiang--- took up 30% of national total. • Mismatch between demand and supply of energy in China in locational terms.
8. The West-east Electricity Transmission Project • Electricity generated by HEP resources in the north-west and south-west, plus electricity generated by coal in the north and south-west to be supplied to the eastern provinces. • The three channels ---- The northern channel: Coal-fired electricity from mine-mouth plants at Shanxi, Shaanxi and western Inner Mongolia, plus HEP from the upper reaches of the Yellow River to be transmitted to northern China, Shandong and the Beijing-Tianjin area.
8. The West-east Electricity Transmission Project ---- The central channel: Centred on the Three Gorges Project, to supply central and eastern China. ---- The southern channel: HEP (plus some coal-fired power from mine-mouth plants in Guizhou) from Guizhou, Yunnan and Guangxi to be supplied to Guangdong
8. The West-east Electricity Transmission Project • Functions of the Projects 1) To help satisfy power demand in the coastal provinces. ---- in 2002, Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu, Zhejiang and Guangdong consumed more electricity than generated. ---- Concurrently, Shanxi Inner Mongolia, Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou and Liaoning produced more power than consumed.
8. The West-east Electricity Transmission Project 2) To alleviate the coal transportation problem ---- 70% of the thermal power in China generated by burning coal and electricity generation is the largest use of coal, hence transmitting electricity from the western provinces to the east will reduce the need for coal transport.
8. The West-east Electricity Transmission Project 3) In reality, could only play supplementary role in satisfying eastern power demand, e.g., estimated that by 2005, the project could satisfy 22% of Guangdong power demand.
8. The West-east Electricity Transmission Project • Other benefits 1) Stimulate development of western provinces. 2) Improve environmental quality of eastern provinces. 3) Facilitates the formation of a national grid.
9. The West-east Pipeline Project • Advantages of natural gas : Safe and environmentally friendly --- China wants to use more natural gas 10% of energy supply by 2010 • Takes gas from Tarim Basin in Xinjiang to Shanghai --- 4,167 km 111.8 cm (47 inches) in diameter pipe --- 12 billion cu.m. of gas to reach Yangtze delta area per year --- total investment 120 billion rmb .
9. The West-east Pipeline Project upstream gas development 20 billion rmb mid-stream pipe 40 billion rmb downstream pipe 60 billion rmb --- partially on stream in Dec 2004
9. The West-east Pipeline Project • Major uses, estimated for 2005 --- electricity generation 51% --- city use 27% --- industrial fuel 17% --- petrochemicals 5%
9. The West-east Pipeline Project • Advantages 1. Alleviate pressure on coal transport (in 1998, 88% of energy consumption in Yangtze delta area had to be imported, coal being the most important fuel moved in) 2. Reduce reliance on oil ---- Now 40% of oil consumption is imported, and the proportion is slated to rise in future 3. Suppress air pollution 4. Stimulate economic development of the West
9. The West-east Pipeline Project E. Overall effect : can only play supplementary role