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What is Nutrition?

What is Nutrition?

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What is Nutrition?

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  1. What is Nutrition? The science of food, the nutrients and the substances therein, their action, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease, and the process by which the organism ingests, digests, absorbs, transports, utilizes, and excretes food substances.

  2. States of Nutritional Health Desirable Nutrition nutrients consumed support body functions and stores for times of increased need. Malnutrition Undernutrition nutrient intake does not meet minimal needs; can lead to reduced biochemical function and serious long term effects Overnutrition* nutrients are consumed in excess of the body needs; can lead to toxicity or obesity * biggest problem in the US due to excess of saturated fats and salt

  3. Nutrition and your Health hypertension viruses atherosclerosis stress fungi high in fiber and fluid diabetes high in fruit bacteria heart disease low in saturated and trans fats high in whole grains * obesity little or no alcohol cancer cells high in vegetables stroke adequate in nutrients parasites moderate in calories

  4. Leading Cause of Death in the U.S. • 4 of top 6 are • nutrition-dependent

  5. Nutrition and Your Health Poor diet is a risk factor for several chronic diseases and ailments heart disease cancer (e.g., colon, breast) diabetes stroke hypertension Anemia (iron-deficiency) osteoporosis cirrhosis of the liver fetal alcohol syndrome stunted growth Poor diets kill 300,000 people/year from these top 3 diseases alone

  6. Nutrition, Disease, and Genetics New Research Fields: • nutritional genomics • molecular nutrition • nutrigenomics

  7. How Aware are You of your Nutritional Health? overall population is getting fatter probably due to an increasingly sedentary lifestyle, poorer diets, and a busier work schedule

  8. Why Do We Eat? We eat to get Nutrients. Nutrients are the nourishing substances we must obtain from food. These essential substances are vital for growth and maintenance from infancy to adulthood. The minimum diet for healthy growth, development, and maintenance MUST contain about 45 essential nutrients.

  9. Classes of Nutrients and Their Elements

  10. Function of Nutrients Energy Providers Growth and Development Providers Body Processes Regulators

  11. Energy Providing Nutrients Food Energy is measured in calories (kilocalorie, Calorie): The amount of heat energy necessary to raise the temperature of a liter (1 kilogram) of water 1 degree Celsius. Metabolic Rate (MR): The overall rate at which nutrients are broken down to produce energy for ATP and heat Basal Metabolic Rate (bMR):The rate at which a quiet, resting, fasting body breaks down nutrients to liberate energy. The thyroid hormone is the main regulator of bMR

  12. Energy Producing Nutrients: • Carbohydrates • Fats/Lipids • Proteins Table 1-3, p. 6

  13. Growth and Development NutrientsBody Process Regulator Nutrients • Vitamins • Minerals • Water • Proteins (some functions) • Fiber (from carbohydrates)

  14. Why Do We Eat What We Do? Body Image

  15. The Science of Nutrition Nutrition is true science but a young science 1897 – first vitamin identified 1940’s – first protein structure It is a complex, interactive science Research Design can take many forms: Epidemiological study Case study Laboratory study Intervention study

  16. Scientific Method

  17. Nutritious Diet Characteristics Adequacy Foods provide enough of each essential nutrient, fiber, and energy Balance All food groups are represented; one is not overrepresented Calorie Control Food provides enough energy to maintain weight Moderation There is no excess nor unwanted food groups Variety Foods differ from one day to the next

  18. Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) • Represent up-to-date optimal, and safe nutrient intakes for healthy people in the US and Canada • They are based on scientific investigation • DRI Committee Goals are to: • Set Recommended Intake Values (RDA, AI) • Facilitate Nutrition Research and Policy (EAR) • Establish Safety Guidelines (UL) • Prevent Chronic Diseases (AMDR)

  19. Nutrient Standards

  20. Daily Values Standards used only on food labels to enable customers to compare the nutrient values among foods They reflect the needs of an average person – someone eating 2000-2500 calories/day Are much less useful as nutrient intake goals for individuals

  21. 1992 Nutritional Requirements

  22. The New 2005 MyPyramid • Process to replace the 1992 model was secret • According to USDA staff: • Keep physically active • Eat in moderation • Make personalized food choices • Eat a variety of foods in the recommended number of servings • Pursue gradual dietary improvement No more food hierarchies Influence of food lobbies is apparent

  23. What’s Your Excuse?

  24. Most Often Knowledge is Key

  25. 2005 US Dietary Guidelines Fig. 1-5a, p. 16

  26. 2005 US Dietary Guidelines Fig. 1-5b, p. 16

  27. 2005 US Dietary Guidelines Fig. 1-5c, p. 16

  28. 2005 US Dietary Guidelines Fig. 1-5d, p. 16

  29. 2005 US Dietary Guidelines Fig. 1-5e, p. 16

  30. 2005 US Dietary Guidelines Fig. 1-5f, p. 16

  31. 2005 US Dietary Guidelines Fig. 1-5g, p. 16

  32. 2005 US Dietary Guidelines Fig. 1-5h, p. 16

  33. U.S.Nutrition Objectives 2010