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5. Choice. Economic Rationality. The principal behavioral postulate is that a decisionmaker chooses its most preferred alternative from those available to it. The available choices constitute the choice set. How is the most preferred bundle in the choice set located?.

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    1. 5 Choice

    2. Economic Rationality • The principal behavioral postulate is that a decisionmaker chooses its most preferred alternative from those available to it. • The available choices constitute the choice set. • How is the most preferred bundle in the choice set located?

    3. Rational Constrained Choice x2 x1

    4. Rational Constrained Choice Utility x1

    5. Rational Constrained Choice Utility x2 x1

    6. Rational Constrained Choice Utility x2 x1

    7. Rational Constrained Choice Utility x2 x1

    8. Rational Constrained Choice Utility x2 x1

    9. Rational Constrained Choice Utility x2 x1

    10. Rational Constrained Choice Utility x2 x1

    11. Rational Constrained Choice Utility Affordable, but not the most preferred affordable bundle. x2 x1

    12. Rational Constrained Choice The most preferredof the affordable bundles. Utility Affordable, but not the most preferred affordable bundle. x2 x1

    13. Rational Constrained Choice Utility x2 x1

    14. Rational Constrained Choice Utility x2 x1

    15. Rational Constrained Choice x2 Utility x1

    16. Rational Constrained Choice x2 Utility x1

    17. Rational Constrained Choice x2 x1

    18. Rational Constrained Choice x2 Affordablebundles x1

    19. Rational Constrained Choice x2 Affordablebundles x1

    20. Rational Constrained Choice x2 More preferredbundles Affordablebundles x1

    21. Rational Constrained Choice x2 More preferredbundles Affordablebundles x1

    22. Rational Constrained Choice x2 x2* x1 x1*

    23. Rational Constrained Choice x2 (x1*,x2*) is the mostpreferred affordablebundle. x2* x1 x1*

    24. Rational Constrained Choice • The most preferred affordable bundle is called the consumer’s ORDINARY DEMAND at the given prices and budget. • Ordinary demands will be denoted byx1*(p1,p2,m) and x2*(p1,p2,m).

    25. Rational Constrained Choice • When x1* > 0 and x2* > 0 the demanded bundle is INTERIOR. • If buying (x1*,x2*) costs $m then the budget is exhausted.

    26. Rational Constrained Choice x2 (x1*,x2*) is interior. (x1*,x2*) exhausts thebudget. x2* x1 x1*

    27. Rational Constrained Choice x2 (x1*,x2*) is interior.(a) (x1*,x2*) exhausts thebudget; p1x1* + p2x2* = m. x2* x1 x1*

    28. Rational Constrained Choice x2 (x1*,x2*) is interior .(b) The slope of the indiff.curve at (x1*,x2*) equals the slope of the budget constraint. x2* x1 x1*

    29. Rational Constrained Choice • (x1*,x2*) satisfies two conditions: • (a) the budget is exhausted; p1x1* + p2x2* = m • (b) the slope of the budget constraint, -p1/p2, and the slope of the indifference curve containing (x1*,x2*) are equal at (x1*,x2*).

    30. Computing Ordinary Demands • How can this information be used to locate (x1*,x2*) for given p1, p2 and m?

    31. Computing Ordinary Demands - a Cobb-Douglas Example. • Suppose that the consumer has Cobb-Douglas preferences.

    32. Computing Ordinary Demands - a Cobb-Douglas Example. • Suppose that the consumer has Cobb-Douglas preferences. • Then

    33. Computing Ordinary Demands - a Cobb-Douglas Example. • So the MRS is

    34. Computing Ordinary Demands - a Cobb-Douglas Example. • So the MRS is • At (x1*,x2*), MRS = -p1/p2 so

    35. Computing Ordinary Demands - a Cobb-Douglas Example. • So the MRS is • At (x1*,x2*), MRS = -p1/p2 so (A)

    36. Computing Ordinary Demands - a Cobb-Douglas Example. • (x1*,x2*) also exhausts the budget so (B)

    37. Computing Ordinary Demands - a Cobb-Douglas Example. • So now we know that (A) (B)

    38. Computing Ordinary Demands - a Cobb-Douglas Example. • So now we know that (A) Substitute (B)

    39. Computing Ordinary Demands - a Cobb-Douglas Example. • So now we know that (A) Substitute (B) and get This simplifies to ….

    40. Computing Ordinary Demands - a Cobb-Douglas Example.

    41. Computing Ordinary Demands - a Cobb-Douglas Example. Substituting for x1* in then gives

    42. Computing Ordinary Demands - a Cobb-Douglas Example. So we have discovered that the mostpreferred affordable bundle for a consumerwith Cobb-Douglas preferences is

    43. Computing Ordinary Demands - a Cobb-Douglas Example. x2 x1

    44. Rational Constrained Choice • When x1* > 0 and x2* > 0 and (x1*,x2*) exhausts the budget,and indifference curves have no ‘kinks’, the ordinary demands are obtained by solving: • (a) p1x1* + p2x2* = y • (b) the slopes of the budget constraint, -p1/p2, and of the indifference curve containing (x1*,x2*) are equal at (x1*,x2*).

    45. Rational Constrained Choice • But what if x1* = 0? • Or if x2* = 0? • If either x1* = 0 or x2* = 0 then the ordinary demand (x1*,x2*) is at a corner solution to the problem of maximizing utility subject to a budget constraint.

    46. Examples of Corner Solutions -- the Perfect Substitutes Case x2 MRS = -1 x1

    47. Examples of Corner Solutions -- the Perfect Substitutes Case x2 MRS = -1 Slope = -p1/p2 with p1 > p2. x1

    48. Examples of Corner Solutions -- the Perfect Substitutes Case x2 MRS = -1 Slope = -p1/p2 with p1 > p2. x1

    49. Examples of Corner Solutions -- the Perfect Substitutes Case x2 MRS = -1 Slope = -p1/p2 with p1 > p2. x1

    50. Examples of Corner Solutions -- the Perfect Substitutes Case x2 MRS = -1 Slope = -p1/p2 with p1 < p2. x1