NUTRITIONAL ASPECT OF MACRONUTRIENT CARBOHYDRATES. Dept of Nutrition Medical School Padjadjaran University. INTRODUCTION. Compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen arranged as monosaccharide or multiple monosaccharide C n (H 2 O) n . Main energy sources for Asia people
Dept of Nutrition
60-65% energy demand come from carbohydrates:
A pair of monosaccharide linked together
2. Complex CH/ polysaccharides:
Many monosaccharide linked together.
Plant polisaccharide composed of glucose: grains, tubers, legumes.
Pectin, gum, mucilage, some hemicellulose, psilium.
Cellulose, many hemicellulose, lignin.
Digestion process breaks carbohydrate
down to a simpler one so it can be easily
Monosaccharide (glucose, fructose,
end products of carbohydrate digestion.
carbohydrate is absorbed in this form.
The salivary enzyme amylase starts to work, hydrolizing starch to shorter polisaccharides and to maltose.
To a small extent, continue breaking starch down.
Metabolism glucose will product energy.
Glucose will metabolized to:
< 100 mg/dL plasma
100-120 mg/dL plasma.
Physiological measurement which can be used to estimate the relative rates of glucose absorption from various foods
(Jenkins et all, 1981).
Subject ingest a portion of the test food containing 50 g carbohydtare, and blood glucose levels in peripheral blood are measured every 30 min for 3 hr. Compared with the same subject who is given 50 g carbohydrate from glucose or white bread.
Easier to absorb, higher GI value
The larger lipid or protein or fiber contain the lower GI value.
The more liquid the higher the GI
Metabolic disturbance by abnormal insulin activity
Refined carbohydrates >>
Lack/ deficient of lactase
Metabolic disturbance by insulin resistant
High risk for degenerative disease that affecting by atherosclerosis