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Newfoundland Pine Marten. An Endangered Species. Why Preserve Endangered Species. The rate of extinction is 1000 times greater than in the past The health of ecosystems depend on the links of the web of life The web of life becomes endangered every time a species becomes extinct

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newfoundland pine marten

Newfoundland Pine Marten

An Endangered Species

why preserve endangered species
Why Preserve Endangered Species
  • The rate of extinction is 1000 times greater than in the past
  • The health of ecosystems depend on the links of the web of life
  • The web of life becomes endangered every time a species becomes extinct
  • Our quality of life and that of future generations depends on our preservation of plant and animal species.

Environmental Science 3205 – Chapter 8

biodiversity
Biodiversity
  • Definition – the variety of plants and animals in an area (biological diversity)
  • The greater the number of different plants and animals in an area the greater its biodiversity
  • The greater the biodiversity the greater the number of links in the web of life
  • The greater the number of links the greater the health of the ecosystem

Environmental Science 3205 – Chapter 8

genetic diversity
Genetic Diversity
  • Definition - The differences in genetic makeup of individuals within the same species
  • As genetic diversity decreases the potential for inbreeding and genetic problems, including deformities and body system failures to occur.

Environmental Science 3205 – Chapter 8

stability of ecosystems
Stability of Ecosystems
  • Depends upon maintaining all the interdependent species, not just those that seem to provide an obvious benefit
  • The loss of one species does not seem like it is important
  • Gradual loss of species will eventually cause the ecosystem to crash

Environmental Science 3205 – Chapter 8

airplane analogy
Airplane Analogy
  • Loosing species in an ecosystem is like loosing rivets in an airplane
  • Loosing one rivet or two will not cause a serious problem
  • Over time this will become a serious problem. It would be difficult to say any one rivet will cause the plane to come apart but it will eventually fall apart.

Environmental Science 3205 – Chapter 8

why save at risk species
Why Save “At Risk” Species
  • All Species have some Value
    • Medicinal
    • Agricultural
    • Ecological
    • Commercial
    • Aesthetic/Recreational

Ref: http://www.endangeredspecie.com/Why_Save_.htm

Environmental Science 3205 – Chapter 8

medicinal
Medicinal
  • 40% of all prescriptions written today are composed from the natural compounds of different plant and animal species.
  • 5% of known plant species have been screened for their medicinal value
    • We lose up to 100 plant species daily
  • Examples
    • Taxol from the Pacific yew bark is a promising medication for ovarian and breast cancer
    • digitalis, a drug derived from the purple foxglove is used to keep heart patients alive after heart attacks

Ref: http://www.endangeredspecie.com/Why_Save_.htm

Environmental Science 3205 – Chapter 8

agricultural
Agricultural
  • Estimated 80,000 edible plants in the world
  • We depend upon only 20 species of these plants, such as wheat and corn, to provide 90% of the world's food
  • Wild relatives of these common crops contain essential disease-resistant material

Ref: http://www.endangeredspecie.com/Why_Save_.htm

Environmental Science 3205 – Chapter 8

ecological
Ecological
  • Plant and animal species are the foundation of healthy ecosystems
  • Humans depend on ecosystems to
    • purify their air
    • clean their water
    • supply them with food
  • species becoming endangered, indicate a decline in health of vital ecosystems
  • Examples:
    • Pollution is killing the coral reefs along the Florida Keys, serving as habitat for hundreds of species of fish
    • northern spotted owl decline indicated poor health of forest ecosystem

Ref: http://www.endangeredspecie.com/Why_Save_.htm

Environmental Science 3205 – Chapter 8

commercial
Commercial
  • Commercial fish species which depends on the quality of the environment have begun to decline (ie. Cod)
  • Causing a threat to the multi-million industry
  • Freshwater mussels are a billion dollar industry in North America
  • 43% of the freshwater mussel species in North America are currently endangered or extinct.

Ref: http://www.endangeredspecie.com/Why_Save_.htm

Environmental Science 3205 – Chapter 8

aesthetic recreational
Aesthetic/Recreational
  • Plant and animal species and their ecosystems
    • Form the basis of Canada’s billion dollar, job-intensive tourism industry
    • Eco-Tourism is the fastest growing sector of the Newfoundland economy
    • Supply recreational activities
    • Are part of our spiritual health
    • Improve our quality-of-life

Environmental Science 3205 – Chapter 8

the future
The Future
  • It is difficult to predict the future
  • Even life forms we do not value such as bacteria, algae and fungi perform vital functions
  • When species become endangered, it is an indicator that the health of these vital ecosystems is beginning to unravel
  • Preservation of biodiversity has become a key component of sustainable development

Environmental Science 3205 – Chapter 8

cosewic
COSEWIC
  • Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada
  • determines the national status of organisms suspected of being at risk including:
    • Wild Canadian species
    • Subspecies
    • Separate populations
  • Lichens, mosses, vascular plants, mollusks, arthropods, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals

Environmental Science 3205 – Chapter 8

cosewic15
COSEWIC
  • According to the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC), there are currently 441 plant and animal species at risk in Canada.
  • Status of these species are listed and updated at:
    • http://www.cosewic.gc.ca/index.htm

Environmental Science 3205 – Chapter 8

cosewic16
COSEWIC
  • Bases its decisions on:
    • Best up-to-date scientific information
    • Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge
  • Three lists are maintained
    • Species at Risk
    • Not at Risk
    • Data Deficient

Environmental Science 3205 – Chapter 8

lists
Lists
  • Species at Risk: species designated as
    • Extinct
    • Extirpated
    • Endangered
    • Threatened
    • Special Concern (Vulnerable)
  • Not at Risk: species that have been evaluated and found to be not at risk
  • Data Deficient: species for which there is insufficient scientific information to support a risk or not at risk designation

Environmental Science 3205 – Chapter 8

extinction x
Extinction (X)
  • Definition – A species that no longer exists.
  • In Newfoundland we have lost:
    • Great Auk
    • Labrador Duck
    • Newfoundland Wolf
    • Sea Mink
    • Eskimo Curlew (thought to be extinct)

Environmental Science 3205 – Chapter 8

the great auk
The Great Auk
  • Auk used for food and eggs by local inhabitants
  • Its fate was sealed when bird feathers became fashion items
  • Became extinct on June 4, 1844, when three fishermen killed the last pair

Environmental Science 3205 – Chapter 8

the labrador duck
The Labrador Duck
  • Extinct since 1875
  • Last known specimen was shot in 1875 at Long Island, New York

Environmental Science 3205 – Chapter 8

newfoundland wolf
Newfoundland Wolf
  • Became extinct about 1930
  • Main factor seems to have been decline of the Newfoundland caribou population
    • Pop. 1915 – 120,000 animals
    • Pop. 1925 - 5000-6000 animals
  • Even though a bounty was placed on wolves it had little effect on the extinction

Environmental Science 3205 – Chapter 8

the sea mink
The Sea Mink
  • 25-50% larger than the common Mink
  • valued for their fur
  • exterminated by about 1870

Environmental Science 3205 – Chapter 8

eskimo curlew
Eskimo Curlew
  • Between 1870 and 1890, unrestricted hunting rapidly reduced populations of Eskimo Curlew
  • Listed as Endangered in 1967
  • Thought to be extinct.

Environmental Science 3205 – Chapter 8

coswic categories
COSWIC Categories
  • Extinct (X) - A species that no longer exists.
  • Extirpated (XT) - A species no longer existing in the wild in Canada, but occurring elsewhere.
  • Endangered (E) - A species facing imminent extirpation or extinction.
  • Threatened (T) - A species likely to become endangered if limiting factors are not reversed.
  • Special Concern (SC) - A species that is particularly sensitive to human activities or natural events but is not an endangered or threatened species (formerly called vulnerable).

Environmental Science 3205 – Chapter 8

extirpated xt
Extirpated (XT)
  • Definition - A species no longer existing in the wild in Canada, but occurring elsewhere or no longer existing in one part of its normal range in Canada but still exists in others
  • Example:
    • Grizzly Bear
      • Prairie population designated Extirpated in April 1991
    • Atlantic Walrus
      • Extirpated around 1850

Environmental Science 3205 – Chapter 8

endangered e
Endangered (E)
  • Definition - A species facing imminent extirpation or extinction.
  • Examples:
    • Newfoundland Pine Marten
    • Piping Plover
      • changed from threatened in 1985
    • Leatherback Turtle
    • Peregrine Falcon
      • Endangered (1987) Threatened (2000) now Recovered
    • Harlequin Duck
      • Listed as Endangered in 1990 downlisted to Special Concern in 2001
  • http://www.hww.ca/media_viewer.asp?id=154

Environmental Science 3205 – Chapter 8

threatened t
Threatened (T)
  • Definition - A species likely to become endangered if limiting factors are not reversed.
  • Threatened species are not endangered yet, but are likely to become endangered in the future.
  • Examples:
    • Piping Plover
      • changed to "endangered" in 1985
    • Peregrine Falcon
      • Endangered (1987) Threatened (2000) now Recovered

Environmental Science 3205 – Chapter 8

special concern sc
Special Concern (SC)
  • Formerly called “Vulnerable”
  • Definition - A species that is particularly sensitive to human activities or natural events but is not an endangered or threatened species
  • Examples:
    • Harlequin Duck
      • Downlisted from Endangered in 2001

Environmental Science 3205 – Chapter 8

pine marten
Pine Marten
  • Found primarily in three areas of Newfoundland
    • Little Grand Lake Area
    • Main River Area
    • Tera Nova National Park
  • Status:
    • Endangered(May 2000)

http://www.gov.nf.ca/snp/animalcare/EndSpecies/PineMarten/PineMarten.htm

Environmental Science 3205 – Chapter 8

piping plover
Piping Plover
  • a small, robin sized, shorebird
  • status "threatened" species in 1978
  • changed to "endangered" in 1985

http://www.gov.nf.ca/snp/animalcare/EndSpecies/PipingPlover/PipingPlover.htm

Environmental Science 3205 – Chapter 8

leatherback turtle
Leatherback Turtle
  • listed as endangered throughout its range on June 2, 1970
  • believed primarily to be the result of exploitation by humans for the eggs and meat
  • The biggest leatherback on record weighed almost a tonne — that's about the size of a Volkswagen Beetle
  • http://www.hww.ca/media_viewer.asp?id=103

http://www.gov.nf.ca/snp/AnimalCare/EndSpecies/HarlequinDuck/HarlequinDuck.htm

Environmental Science 3205 – Chapter 8

peregrine falcon
Peregrine Falcon
  • found all around the world
  • a powerful crow-size raptor
  • the main culprit was DDT, Farmers were using it to kill insects
  • 1987, the peregrine falcon was listed as "endangered“
  • May 31, 2000, status was downgraded to "threatened."
  • Status - Recovered

http://www.gov.nf.ca/snp/animalcare/EndSpecies/PeregrineFalcon/PeregrineFalcon.htm

Environmental Science 3205 – Chapter 8

harlequin duck
Harlequin Duck
  • most breed in Labrador in Spring
  • migrate to southern Newfoundland in Winter
  • Listed as Endangered in 1990
  • Eastern North American pop. is estimated > 1,000 individuals and declining.
  • Recent studies resulted in the downlisting of this species in 2001 and it is currently listed as a species of "Special Concern".
  • http://www.hww.ca/media_viewer.asp?id=158

http://www.gov.nf.ca/snp/AnimalCare/EndSpecies/HarlequinDuck/HarlequinDuck.htm

Environmental Science 3205 – Chapter 8

grizzly bear
Grizzly Bear
  • Canadian grizzlies are found in BC, Yukon, Alberta and the NWT
  • Completed extirpated from the Canadian prairies, where it was hunted to extermination
  • Status:
    • Extirpated (May 2002)
    • Prairie population designated Extirpated in April 1991

Environmental Science 3205 – Chapter 8

walrus atlantic
Walrus, Atlantic
  • Northwest Atlantic population
  • found in Arctic waters of Bering Sea, James Bay and the Labrador coast
  • Extirpated from the Northwest Atlantic, the Mackenzie delta and the St. Lawrence River
  • Extirpated around 1850.
  • Designated Extirpated in April 1987

Environmental Science 3205 – Chapter 8

wolverine
Wolverine
  • Eastern population
  • Found in Labrador and Quebec
  • Looks like a small bear with a bushy tail
  • Status:
    • Endangered (May 2003)

Environmental Science 3205 – Chapter 8

beluga whale
Beluga Whale
  • Status: Endangered (April 1990)
  • migrate to Labrador in spring

Environmental Science 3205 – Chapter 8

questions set 01
Questions Set 01
  • Give two reasons why we should be concerned about the preservation of species
  • What is biodiversity ?
  • Why is it important to preserve biodiversity ?
  • What is genetic diversity ?
  • Why is genetic diversity important ?
  • Who determines which species are “at risk” in Canada ?
  • What is the major cause of problems with wildlife and reduction of numbers in the world ?

8. Define each of the following designations of Species at Risk:

    • .Extinct
    • .Extirpated
    • .Endangered
    • .Threatened
    • .Special Concern

9. Give one example (from NL if possible) of an organism that is:

    • Extinct
    • Extirpated
    • Endangered
    • Threatened
    • Of special concern

Environmental Science 3205 – Chapter 8

newfoundland pine marten39
Newfoundland Pine Marten

Environmental Science 3205 – Chapter 8

newfoundland pine marten40
Newfoundland Pine Marten
  • Martes americana atrata (Latin)
    • martes indicates that it belongs to the marten group of mammals.
    • americana indicates that it lives on the American continent.
    • atrata, meaning cloaked in black, indicates it has a darker coloured coat, a characteristic unique to the Newfoundland species.

Environmental Science 3205 – Chapter 8

physical description
Physical Description
  • size of a small housecat
  • long, slender body,
  • a small head with a short, pointed muzzle
  • large rounded ears and dark brown eyes
  • Dark brown fur, a paler head and yellowish-orange patch on the throat and chest
  • In summer the marten's coat becomes lighter as it sheds its winter fur.

Environmental Science 3205 – Chapter 8

mustelid weasel family
Mustelid (weasel) family
  • The marten is part of the Mustelid (weasel) family
  • Family includes
    • Wolverine
    • Otter
    • Skunk
    • Mink
    • Weasel

Environmental Science 3205 – Chapter 8

population
Population
  • 1800’s - 800 animals
  • 1986 - 630-875 marten
    • (Status - threatened)
  • 1992 - 300 individuals
    • (Status - Endangered)
  • Current estimates suggest the population may be less than 300 individuals
  • Required minimum population to ensure survival 237 individuals

Environmental Science 3205 – Chapter 8

predators
Predators
  • In Newfoundland, the natural predators of marten include:

Lynx

Hawk Owl

Great Horned Owl

Red Fox

Environmental Science 3205 – Chapter 8

slide45
Prey
  • Meadow vole (field mice) - Main food
  • Vole native to NL
  • Shrews
  • Snowshoe hare
  • Red Squirrel
  • Also berries, eggs, insects and carrion

Environmental Science 3205 – Chapter 8

hunting behavior
Hunting Behavior
  • Primarily night hunters
  • Spend most days resting in trees and dens
  • Most hunting is on ground similar to cat
  • In winter hunt in crevices around stumps or fallen trees
  • When the forest is clear cut natural avenues to food are eliminated

Marten digging for vole

Environmental Science 3205 – Chapter 8

breeding biology
Breeding Biology
  • Females are two years old before they have their first litter
  • Short mating period mid-summer
  • Kits (young) are born in spring
  • Litter 1-5 kits
  • Small number in marten population

Environmental Science 3205 – Chapter 8

accidental trapping
Accidental Trapping
  • One of the problems with snaring rabbits in pine marten habitat is accidentally catching marten.
  • In specific areas use of the modified snare is mandatory to reduce the chance of pine marten being trapped
  • A fine of up to $500 or imprisonment up to six months is the penalty for not using a modified snare tin the required areas

Environmental Science 3205 – Chapter 8

modified snare
Modified Snare

Step1

Using heavy wire attach the coil device to a tree located next to the run. Wrap the wire two times through the eye of the coil for stability.

Step2

Make a small loop at the anchor end of the snare and place the loop on the end of the coil device

Step3

Rotate the snare loop through the inner portion of the coil by winding it around the coil. To work properly, the portion of the snare wire between anchor end and t inside the coil.

Environmental Science 3205 – Chapter 8

great auk
Great Auk
  • The story of the Great Auk is a painful reminder of our potential for greed and destruction.
  • The Great Auk was a large (70 cm tall) flightless Alcid, which weighed about 5 kg. Its plumage was black across the top with a white under belly.
  • Alcid – family of web footed, diving seabirds. Also includes Atlantic Puffin, and the Common Murre.

Environmental Science 3205 – Chapter 8

great auk locations
Great Auk Locations
  • Once numbered in the hundreds of thousands, the flightless Great Auk
  • Nested on rocky islands and coasts of the North Atlantic in Canada, Greenland, Iceland, the British Isles and Scandanavia.
  • A strong swimmer, the great auk migrated to winter as far south as Florida and southern Spain.
  • The largest known colony in the world was on Funk Island off Newfoundland’s northeast coast

Environmental Science 3205 – Chapter 8

funk island colony
Funk Island Colony
  • Early visitors to North America visited the island to kill Great Auk for food
    • Some were eaten fresh
    • Others were salted in great quantities for the trip home to Europe
    • The eggs were taken as well
    • In 1830 not one Great Auk could be found on Funk Island.

Environmental Science 3205 – Chapter 8

demise of the great auk
Demise of the Great Auk

On June 4, 1844, three fishermen named Jon Brandsson, Sigurdr Islefsson and Ketil Ketilsson made a trip to the Icelandic island of Eldey. They had been hired by a collector named Carl Siemsen who wanted auk specimens. Jon Brandsson found an auk and killed it. Sigurdr Islefsson found another and did the same. Ketil Ketilsson had to return empty handed because his companions had just completed the extinction of the great auk.

Environmental Science 3205 – Chapter 8