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Getting to California
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Getting to California

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  1. Ch 21 Sec 1: Origins of the Cold War • Cold War (1945-1990) Confrontation and competition between the US and USSR with actual fighting taking place between nations that the rivals supported • Yalta Conference (Feb 1945) Meeting with FDR, Stalin and Churchill that made plans for the world post WWII • Germany Divided– After the war Germany was divided into four zones controlled by France, England, the US and USSR. The capital of Berlin was also divided. • Potsdam Conference (July 1945) Truman’s first meeting with Stalin where he needed to show strength. Soviets wanted Germany to pay reparations, Truman rejected this. • satellite nations – Eastern European nations not directly under Soviet control but these communist nations stayed loyal to Russia. • The Iron Curtain – Winston Churchill proclaimed the line that divided Eastern Europe (communist) from Western Europe (capitalist), marking the start of the Cold War. Getting to California

  2. A Clash of Interests • After World War II, the United States and the Soviet Union became increasingly hostile, leading to an era of confrontation and competition that lasted from about 1946 to 1990 known as the Cold War. (pages 654–655) Section 1-5

  3. A Clash of Interests(cont.) • Soviets were concerned with security and wanted to avoid future attacks from Germany. • They wanted all countries between Germany and the Soviet Union to be under Soviet control. (pages 654–655) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-6

  4. “One cannot forget the following fact: the Germans carried out an invasion of the U.S.S.R. through Finland, Poland, Rumania, Bulgaria, and Hungary....One can ask, therefore, what can be surprising in the fact that the Soviet Union, in a desire to ensure its security for the future, tries to achieve that these countries should have governments whose relations to the Soviet Union are loyal? .” Joseph Stalin This feature is found on pages 704–705 of your textbook. Time Notebook 3A

  5. (pages 615–617) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-21

  6. A Clash of Interests(cont.) • Soviets believed communism was superior to capitalism. • They were suspicious of capitalist countries because they felt capitalism would lead to war and eventually destroy communism. (pages 654–655) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-6

  7. A Clash of Interests(cont.) • Americans were concerned with economic problems. • Roosevelt and his advisers believed that economic growth would keep the world peaceful. • American leaders promoted a democracy with protections for individual rights and free enterprise to create prosperity. (pages 654–655) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-7

  8. The Yalta Conference • A meeting of Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin at Yalta–a Soviet resort on the Black Sea–was held to plan the postwar world. • Although the conference went well, some agreements made would later become key in causing the Cold War. (pages 655–657) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-9

  9. The Yalta Conference (cont.) • At Yalta, a compromise was made with Roosevelt and Churchill agreeing to recognize the Polish Communist government set up by the Soviets. (pages 655–657) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-10

  10. The Yalta Conference (cont.) • Stalin agreed that the government would include members from the old Polish government before the war. • Stalin agreed that free elections would take place in Poland. (pages 655–657) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-10

  11. This feature is found on pages 704–705 of your textbook. Time Notebook 3A

  12. The Yalta Conference (cont.) • During the meeting at Yalta, Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin issued the Declaration of Liberated Europe, giving people the right to choose their form of government. (pages 655–657) Section 1-11

  13. The Yalta Conference (cont.) • It was decided at Yalta to divide Germany and Berlin into four zones, with Great Britain, the United States, the Soviet Union, and France each controlling a zone. Berlin (pages 655–657) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-12

  14. The Yalta Conference (cont.) • It was also agreed that Germany would pay reparations for damage caused by the war. • For the next several years, arguments about these reparations and economic policy in Germany would become one of the major causes of the Cold War. (pages 655–657) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-12

  15. The Yalta Conference (cont.) • Tensions rose when the Soviets did not follow agreements made at Yalta, which caused Soviet-American relations to deteriorate. (pages 655–657) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-13

  16. The Yalta Conference (cont.) • President Roosevelt died and Vice President Harry S Truman became the next President. (pages 655–657) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-13

  17. Truman Takes Control • Harry S Truman took office, making it clear he would stand firm against Stalin to keep promises he made during Yalta. • In July 1945, Truman and Stalin met at Potsdam near Berlin to work out a deal regarding Germany. • Truman was against heavy reparations on Germany, feeling that the reparations would not allow German industry to recover. (pages 657–658) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-15

  18. Truman Takes Control (cont.) • Agreements were made allowing the Soviets to take reparations from their zone in Germany and a small amount of German industrial equipment from other zones. (pages 657–658) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-16

  19. Truman Takes Control (cont.) • Stalin was not pleased with Truman’s proposal. • Truman then told Stalin of the successfully tested atomic bomb, leading Stalin to think it was a threat to get him to agree to the deal. • Stalin agreed, but tensions rose. (pages 657–658) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-16

  20. Truman Takes Control (cont.) • Other issues at Potsdam did not end successfully. • The Declaration of Liberation of Europe was not upheld, and the Soviet army’s presence led to pro-Soviet Communist governments being established in Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia. (pages 657–658) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-17

  21. Truman Takes Control (cont.) • These Communist countries of Eastern Europe became known as the satellite nations. • Although they had their own governments and were not under direct Soviet control, they had to remain Communist and follow Soviet- approved policies. (pages 657–658) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-17

  22. Truman Takes Control (cont.) • As Communists began taking over Eastern Europe, Winston Churchill’s term, the iron curtain, was used to describe the separation of the Communist nations of Eastern Europe from the West. (pages 657–658) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-18

  23. “From Stettin on the Baltic to Trieste on the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of central and eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest, and Sofia, all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in the Soviet sphere and all are subject, in one form or another, not only to Soviet influence but to a very high and increasing measure of control from Moscow....Police governments are prevailing in nearly every case, and so far, except in Czechoslovakia, there is no true democracy.” Winston S. Churchill Westminster College, Fulton, Missouri March 5th, 1946 This feature is found on pages 704–705 of your textbook. Time Notebook 3A