Introduction to virology
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INTRODUCTION TO VIROLOGY. Prepared by: Miss Norzawani Jaffar Bsc ( Hons ) Biomedical Sciences, UKM. Lecture 16. Learning Outcomes. At the end of learning season, the student must be able to; Understand virology in definition. Explain the general structure for virus

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Introduction to virology


Prepared by:

Miss NorzawaniJaffar

Bsc (Hons) Biomedical Sciences, UKM

Lecture 16

Learning outcomes
Learning Outcomes

At the end of learning season, the student must be able to;

  • Understand virology in definition.

  • Explain the general structure for virus

  • Understand and describe the mode of virus transmission.

  • Understand virus classification



The science which study the virus and viral diseases.


A genitic material containing either DNA or RNA genome that is able to alternate between intra and extra cellular states.


Is a microscopic infectious agent that can reproduce only inside a host cell.


The virus is usually very, very small compared to the size of a living cell (20 – 300 nm).

Viral components are assembled and don’t replicate

By “ division “.

Viruses need to host cell to produce their components

For replication.

Viruses have a naked capsid or an envelope morphology.

Structure of virus1
Structure of virus :

1- Nucleic acid(genome) :

DNA or RNA not both.

2- Capsid(protein coat) :

Which protect the genitic material.

a)Helical. b) Icosahedral.

3- Envelope :

That surrounds them then they are outside the cell.

Viruses transmission

Viruses Transmission

Viruses spread by coughing and sneezing

(Influenza viruses).

Viruses are transmitted by the faecal-oral route such as

(Norovirus), via contact with contaminated hands, food, or water.

HIV is one of several viruses that are transmitted through sexual contact.

Viruses classification
Viruses classification

DNA viruses remember HHAPPPy.

Herpes. Hepadna.

Adeno. Pox.


*all DNA viruses replicate in the nucleus except POX replicate in the cytoplasm.

*all DNA viruses are dsDNA except PARVOssDNA.

*all DNA viruses are icosahedral except POX is complex.

*3 DNA viruses are naked PAP(Parvo, Adeno and Papova).

Introduction to virology

RNA viruses:

*all RNA viruses are ssRNA except REO is ds RNA.

*all RNA viruses replicate in the cytoplasm except ORB

(Orthomyxo, Retro and Borna) replicate in the nucleus.

*3 RNA viruses are non enveloped PCR (Picorna, Calici

And Reo).

*5 RNA viruses have icosahedral PCR+FT ( Flavi and


Parvovirus b19v cause rash
Parvovirus B19Vcause Rash

Adeno virus cause conjuctivitis red eye

Adeno Virus cause Conjuctivitis Red Eye

Rhabdo virus
Rhabdo Virus



Drugs that use for viral infections are called antiviral drugs.

Interferon: which stop or slow virus replication.

Vaccines: for antibody formation, before exposure to disease.

Immunoglobulins: are related to immune system and help to kill the virus.