CE 3372 Water Systems Design EPA SWMM– Pumps and Lift Stations
Purposes • To lift stormwater to higher elevation when discharge of local collection system lies below regional conveyance. • To lift stormwater to higher elevation when terrain or man-made obstacles do not permit gravity flow to discharge point.
Types • Submersible • Lower initial cost • Lower capacity • Smaller footprint • Wet-well / dry-well • Higher initial cost • Easier inspection/ maintenance
Submersible lift station Module 14
Design criteria • Size the pumps and the wet-well (sump) storage capacity to accommodate inflow variability and detention time limits. • Match the pumps to the flow and head requirements. • Provide ‘near-absolute’ reliability • Automated controls • Redundant systems • Alarms • Regularly scheduled, preventive maintenance • Assess and mitigate environmental factors • Flood risk, noise pollution, visibility
Site plan and facilities • Protected and accessible during a major flood • Redundant power supplies • Intruder-resistant with controlled access
Wet-well (sump) dimension design • Height • Inflow pipe elevation • Ground elevation • Excavation costs • Cross section • Constant • Variable Module 14
Greater than average flow Less than the maximum flow Depends mainly upon Inflow variability Marginal costs of increasing sump volume Pump capacity
FHWA-HDS-01-007 • Detailed “how-to” • Reviews hydrology • Reviews hydraulics
Pump System Hydraulic Operation • Runoff enters the collection system and is conveyed to the storage unit and wet well of the pump station. For a period of time there is no outflow as the runoff is stored within the storage unit and wet well. • The water level in the wet well rises and a hydraulic gradient develops based on the rate of inflow, the water level in the wet well, and the conveyance capacity of the storage unit and collection system. • The first pump starts when the water level in the wet well reaches a specific elevation. The pump evacuates the flow at a rate that varies with the pump characteristics and total dynamic head.
Pump System Hydraulic Operation • The inflow rate will vary as defined by the inflow hydrograph. If the pumping rate is lower than the inflow rate, the water level in the storage unit and wet well continues to rise and the volume stored in the system increases. • Additional pumps start at predetermined elevations as the water level rises. • At some point, the inflow rate will be lower than the total pumping rate. The water level in the wet well drops as water is evacuated from storage.
Pump System Hydraulic Operation • At preset elevations, as the water level drops, individual pumps are stopped and the discharge rate drops accordingly. • When the water level drops to the minimum level required for submergence, the last pump is stopped. The last pump off is usually the first to have been switched on, although different switching schemes are feasible.
Lift Station Design Process • Design criteria include: • Design frequency • Peak outflow • Station type • Design philosophy • Minimum storage volume • Maximum allowable highwater • Discharge velocity • Criteria must be established before design of storage and pump system (FHWA-HDS-01-007 pg 4-9)
Lift Station Design Process • Hydrologic Analysis: • Drainage boundary and area • Runoff characteristics • Design runoff hydrographs • Cumulative inflow
Lift Station Design Process • Trial Pumping Configuration: • The design is typically iterative • Minimum of two pumps recommended
Lift Station Design Process • Hydrologic/Hydraulic Analysis/Estimates • Inflow hydrograph • Inflow mass curve • Stage-storage relationship • Trial pump/switching scheme • Mass curve routing • System head curves • Pump selection/operation
Hydrographs – review • A hydrograph is a graphical representation of discharge (volume/time) with time • The area under the hydrograph curve represents the total volume of runoff during the time represented • The highest point on the graph is the peak discharge
Storage • Storage is collection system, plus any sump (wet well) on suction side of lift station.
Time distributed discharge • Route inflow hydrograph through lift station (and collection system) to generate the time distributed discharge.
Basic assumptions • Pump station hydrologic design is conceptually identical to reservoir routing design Inflow-outflow=change in storage • Inflow is the hydrograph produced by the storm sewer system • Outflow is derived from the sump geometry (stage/storage) and Pump Performance Curves for the pump or pumps in the station Module 14
Lift Stations in SWMM • Used to “lift” water from a low elevation to a higher elevation. • Lift provided by pumps, usually centrifugal. • Pumps modeled similar to EPA-NET
Lift Stations in SWMM • Lift stations are modeled as special links (like in EPA NET). • Page 40 of the SWMM manual described the conceptual model used – there are 4 “kinds” of pumps in SWMM
Lift Stations in SWMM • Type 1 Pump Rule • Semi-realistic (see next slide); actual operation would likely be by stage (depth)
Lift Stations in SWMM • Type 2 Pump Rule Realistic rule: can use a PLC and transducer to control the pump; assumes discharge into free (open) pipe
Lift Stations in SWMM • Type 3 Pump Rule Realistic rule: Like in EPA-NET. Assumes suction and discharge submerged – discharging into a force-main. This is the “kind” of pump you had in fluids and earlier in this course.
Lift Stations in SWMM • Type 4 Pump Rule Realistic rule: Archimedes (screw) pumps work exactly like this rule. Reasonably common in wastewater treatment plants for initial lift into the reactors (then gravity flow rest of plant).
Lift Stations in SWMM • Woodlands Ditch C Subdivision. • As-is drainage model, using 2-yr design storm. • Suppose the goal is to keep ponding less than 2 feet.
Lift Stations in SWMM 3:15 into the storm Greater than 2 feet deep Ok to be deep in the ditch
Add relief sewers 3:15 into the storm Used a 8X16 box culvert To “store” water in the sewer Lift station here For the example Ok to be deep in the ditch
Run once to find lift station need 3:15 into the storm Lift station here For the example Probably need 100 cfs (5 low-head pumps)
Run again with the lift station 3:15 into the storm Lift station here For the example Probably need 100 cfs (4 low-head pumps)
Then Check • Is such a lift station feasible? • How many pumps? • Force main diameter (4-foot this simulation), kind of big • How much power? • Other alternatives (in this case a gravity relief sewer probably makes more sense)
Exercise • Download the No-Relief-Sewer file and run the program. • Then design a relief sewer(s) to keep all the storage nodes at 2 foot ponding depth or less. • Require at least 5-foot cover (storage nodes are at grade, other nodes below grade).