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Foregrounding or What comes first?. FOREGROUNDING 1 analysing texts for the foregrounded elements = theme . Text 1. There are four basic face shapes. One is long. Models tend to have this kind of face. The second is round. People with round faces can look homely.

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foregrounding or what comes first
Foregrounding or

What comes first?

Literacy SecretariatLiteracy is everyone’s business

foregrounding 1 analysing texts for the foregrounded elements theme
FOREGROUNDING 1analysing texts for the foregrounded elements = theme

Literacy SecretariatLiteracy is everyone’s business

slide3

Text 1

There are four basic face shapes.

One is long. Models tend to have this kind of face.

The second is round. People with round faces can look homely.

The third is square and the fourth is oval.

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slide4

Text 1

There are four basic face shapes.

One is long.

Models tend to have this kind of face.

The second is round.

People with round faces can look homely.

The third is square and the fourth is oval.

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slide5

Text 1

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slide6

Text 2

Susan Ellis is a girl that I know. She is pretty. She has blue eyes and long hair, pretty blonde hair. Lastly she’s tall. She’s very.. impressively tall. She’s tall enough to be a champion basketball player (even though she isn’t).

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slide7

Text 2

Susan Ellis is a girl that I know.

She is pretty.

She has blue eyes and long hair, pretty blonde hair.

Lastly she’s tall.

She’s very.. impressively tall.

She’s tall enough to be a champion basketball player (even though she isn’t).

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slide8

Text 2

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slide9

Text 3

Barney was born in 1956 in a small country town. When he was six he started school there. After seven years at that school he had to go to a boarding school in Perth.

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slide10

Text 3

Barney was born in 1956 in a small country town.

When he was sixhe started school there. Then,after seven years at that school, he had to go to a boarding school in Perth.

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slide11

Text 3

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slide12

Text 4

I am very sorry but Barbara can not go swimming today. Last night we had a party to celebrate her birthday. Unfortunately we all drank too much and today we are all as sick as dogs.

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slide13

Text 4

I am very sorry but Barbara can not go swimming today.

Last night we had a party to celebrate her birthday. Unfortunatelywe all drank too much and today we are all as sick as dogs.

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slide14

Text 4

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slide16

Text 5

First get the bread.

Next get the butter.

After that spread the butter on the bread with the knife.

When you have finished, eat it.

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slide17

Text 5

Get the bread.

Get the butter.

After thatspread the butter on the bread with the knife.

When you have finished,eat it.

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slide18

Text 5

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slide19

Marked and Unmarked Themes

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slide22

FOREGROUNDING 2

Foregrounding and mode

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slide23
Mode

Foregrounding is an element of Mode

Mode is the ‘how’, the information about the textual element of a Text. Mode in Text in Context deals with the range of spoken, written and multimodal texts.

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slide24

Mode

TEXT IN CONTEXT

Deals with a range of texts constructed in a variety of modes – highly spoken to highly written and includes a range of technologies

(telephone, e-mail, pen etc)

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mode continuum
Mode continuum

Mode

spoken …………………………………written

shop dialogue..………………..…written discussion on shopping hours

transcript of dialogue………..………… formal

oral presentation

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slide26

Mode

  • We shouted like anythingwhen Nigelcame on.
  • Nigel Smart led the Crows onto Football Park last Saturday. The crowd erupted into applause.
  • Last Saturday Nigel Smart led the Crows onto Football Park last Saturday andthe crowd erupted into applause.
  • As Nigel Smart led the Crows onto Football Park, the crowd erupted into applause.
  • With enormous applause ringing through the stadium, Nigel Smart led his beloved Crows into the stadium.

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slide27

Mode

  • Peopledestroy the places where the panda lives.
  • The destruction of the panda’s habitatis due to …..…….

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slide28

We shouted like anythingwhen Nigelcame on.

Mode continuum

spoken ……………………………written

Nigel Smart led the Crows onto Football Park last Saturday.

The crowderupted into applause.

As Nigel Smart led the Crows onto Football Park, the crowd erupted into applause.

With enormous applause ringing through the stadium, Nigel Smart led his beloved Crows into the stadium.

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slide29
Mode continuum

spoken ……………………………written

Weplaced the mixture in the oven after five minutes.

The mixturewas placed in the oven after five minutes.

Peopledestroy the places where the panda lives.

The destruction of the panda’s habitatis due to …..…….

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mode continuum1
Mode continuum

spoken …………………………………written

concrete noun……………………………abstract,

nominalised noun

human specific……human general……..no human

agent

active voice ……………………….…..passive voice

action verbs…………………………. relational verb

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slide31

Foregrounding 3

Foregrounding at work

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slide32

Patterns of foregrounding

Easily understood texts have expected patterns of foregrounding

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slide33

Patterns of foregrounding

Thematic choice should not be unexpected - it should be connected with ideas presented in a previous theme or rheme.

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slide34

Pattern 1: rheme of a clause is split and used as theme of clauses which follow

taxonomic report

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slide36

Pattern 2: same theme – information is built through the rheme

description

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slide37

Pattern 3: zig zag – (given – new) -an element in the rheme of one clause is the theme, or implied in the theme, of the next

explanation

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slide39

Patterns of foregrounding

Easily understood texts have expected patterns of foregrounding

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slide40

Patterns of foregrounding

The foregrounded element may change

with each new stage of the text

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slide42

Foregrounding 3

Foregrounding in the ESL Scales

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foregrounding across the esl scales procedure
Foregrounding across the ESL Scales: Procedure

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foregrounding across the esl scales narrative
Foregrounding across the ESL Scales: Narrative

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foregrounding across the esl scales explanation
Foregrounding across the ESL Scales: Explanation

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foregrounding across the esl scales exposition
Foregrounding across the ESL Scales: Exposition

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Foregrounding 4

Foregrounding activities

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change foregrounding
Change foregrounding

Rewrite this recount as a procedure.

The boys had a rough map of the area to help find their friends. They walked slowly across the road to look for them. They reached the other side and soon found them sitting in the park.

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change foregrounding1
Change foregrounding

Read the rough map of the area to help find the friends.

Follow it slowly across the road to look for them.

When the other side is reached, find them sitting in the park.

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change foregrounding2
Change foregrounding

Rewrite this paragraph using some options listed below.

The boys had a rough map of the area to help find their friends. They walked slowly across the road to look for them. They reached the other side and soon found them sitting in the park.

  • Non-finite verb (To run, Running to)
  • Nominalisation (behave>behaviour, wide>width)
  • Conjunction (Firstly)
  • Non-human element (The car was driven …)
  • Circumstance (With a hammer, Yesterday, After midnight)
  • Dependent clause (After I ate it, …, Because the string broke, …)

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change foregrounding3
Change foregrounding

Using a rough map of the area to help find their friends, the boys walked slowly across the road. Their friends’ location under a tree was soon reached.

In this version the human foregrounding (The boys, They, They) has been replaced.

What by?

What is the effect?

When would this be appropriate?

How could you teach this?

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Foregrounding 5

Teaching strategies

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slide53

2.Compare genres

Recount:

My brother Person

We Person

On Saturday Time

Procedure:

Open Action

Lift Action

Fold Action

Foregrounding

  • Analyse foregrounded elements in a different versions of the same text
  • My brothertook me in his car.Wewent to myuncle’s house.On Saturday, we had fun, because we cooked lunch.
  • In my brother’s car, we went to my uncle’s house. Cooking lunch on Saturday was fun.

3. Compile lists of examples appropriate to the genre

time (biographical recount) - During his childhood, After his…, Following his …, In his final years,

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4. Experiment

Shift foregrounded element from the front to middle to back

5. Jumbled text

Talk about foregrounding at text and sentence level while reordering a text cut into paragraphs.

6. Deconstruction

Students deconstruct own text for its foregrounded pattern. Categorise as human and non-human.

7. Change audience or genre

In small groups practice choosing different foregrounding when the audience/genre changes

8. Nominalisations

Note the impact of foregrounding nominalisations on the grammar (eg active to passive voice).

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Foregrounding 6

How can the student be supported to improve this text ?

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