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IPPR Conference - 26 October 2005. Building a consensus on national road pricing: the challenges ahead Session 3 The next steps for London Dick Halle Transport for London. What I shall talk about today:. What has happened in London to date The effectiveness of measures introduced

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ippr conference 26 october 2005
IPPR Conference - 26 October 2005
  • Building a consensus on national road pricing:
  • the challenges ahead
  • Session 3
  • The next steps for London
  • Dick Halle
  • Transport for London
what i shall talk about today
What I shall talk about today:
  • What has happened in London to date
  • The effectiveness of measures introduced
  • Forecast conditions with the need to take further action
  • London as a pilot to help take national road user charging forward
recent travel trends
Recent travel trends
  • Trends in London population, jobs, traffic, public transport use, motoring costs, bus and tube fares

Bus PKms

Underground PKms


Underground fares

Minor Roads



Major Roads

Motoring costs

Bus fares

recent road traffic trends
Recent road traffic trends
  • Travel demand and distance travelled in London has risen in the past 10 years
  • Traffic growth has been mainly in the:
    • contra-peak direction
    • outside the peak periods
    • during the evening
    • spreading to local roads
  • During the working day, TfL and Boroughs have adopted interventions to facilitate people movement at the expense of vehicle movement in places – many restrictions don’t then apply at the weekend
  • Spare capacity is being filled up and where usage exceeds capacity we see congestion
traffic congestion
Traffic congestion
  • The main road network runs at capacity in specific locations at specific time
  • In particular congestion is seen along strategic routes and in outer London town centres

Weekday am peak IT IS graph

Saturday pm off peak IT IS graph

Policy interventions have reduced road space
  • Signal installations have increased from 3,100 to 4,750 from 1991 to 2003
  • An increase in pedestrian crossings and pedestrian phases at traffic signals
  • A significant increase in bus lanes as part of bus priority
  • A four fold increase in street / road works by utilities companies from ~78,000 to 350,000 per year between 1993 and 2002

Policy intervention that has ‘increased space available’

  • Central London Congestion Charge
two years on continued benefits
Two years on - continued benefits
  • Congestion in zone down 30%
  • Traffic entering charging zone reduced by 18% - cars down 33%
  • However little change in number of person trips to central area
    • 50–60% moved to public transport
    • 20–30% divert round zone
    • 15–25% other adaptations
  • Net revenue £100m a year
total traffic entering the charging zone during charging hours
Total traffic entering the charging zone – during charging hours

Before Charge

With Charge

Feb / Mar 2002

Feb / Mar 2003

Spring 2002

Spring 2003

Autumn 2002

Autumn 2003

Jan 2003

Spring 2004

Autumn 2004

predicted travel growth
Predicted travel growth

An extra 4m daily trips by 2025

Daily trips in London (m)


The historic trend has been fuelled by a number of trends including strong employment growth, lower fares, increase in capacity on underground (JLE) and latterly sharply increasing bus use. Daily trips for main mode of transport used, includes all walking trips.

Future transport trends
  • Notes:
  • Includes planned schemes and major infrastructure projects i.e. CTRL, CrossRail, River Crossings, and Intermediate Transit Schemes, plus Congestion Charging Western Extension.
  • Shows the projected increase in public transport if car trips remain at current levels. Shows the projected increase in car trips taking into account population growth and car ownership/household at current levels. Work is ongoing to further validate and understand recent and projected trend in car trips.

Projected increase in car trips


Possible Impact of policies to limit car trips

Projected increase in

public transport trips


short medium and long term strategies for people movement
Short, medium and long term strategies for people movement*
  • Long Term: increase network capacity
  • Distance-based/new Technology Charging? (2014 onwards)
  • Channel Tunnel Rail Link (2008-)
  • Congestion relief on LUL (2010)
  • National Rail Capacity Improvements (2013)
  • CrossRail (2015)
  • and better land use policy

Optimising the road network

  • Medium Term: manage/ regulate demand
  • Smart Measures (2004 onwards)
  • Western Extension (2007)
  • CLoccs re-let with tag and beacon?/ providing more flexibility and improved payment channels (2009/10)
  • Charging in other congested areas? - tag and beacon schemes in congestion centres and on key strategic routes (2010 onwards)
  • Short Term: optimise
  • Getting the most from the current network (2004 - )
    • Real time management
    • Signal control
    • Street and road works
    • Enforcement
  • Corridor management (2004 -)
    • Bus Priority and enforcement
    • Consistent approach to designing sections of roads through guidance
    • Approval of schemes on the Strategic Road Network
    • Funding integrated plans rather than isolated projects

Actively encouraging modal shift

*Links to the Freight Plan are also being made

tif what role for pilot schemes
Tif – what role for pilot schemes
  • To demonstrate:
    • Opportunities for policy integration
    • Options for new technology
    • Impacts of charging outside Central London
    • Public acceptability
why a pilot in london
Why a pilot in London?
  • Any national scheme has to work in London
    • 40% of England’s excess congestion is in London
    • Wide mix of urban and inter-urban conditions

Making use of TfL’s experience and knowledge

    • Design and assessment
    • Operating and enforcing a real scheme
    • Having a real customer base
    • Charging technology – leading ground breaking trials
    • Important issues for national/local accountability

TfL’s integrated transport responsibilities

potential benefits of wider road user charging in london
Potential Benefits of Wider Road User Charging in London
  • Distance based charging (2005 prices, values and deterrents), weekdays only
  • All motor vehicles charged except buses, coaches and taxis
  • Areacharges changes base congestion change in
  • in traffic flow mins/km congestion
  • Central 60p/km -18% 2.3 -32%
  • working day
  • Inner 30p/km -20% 1.0 -40%
  • working day
  • Outer 15p/km -17% 0.7 -40%
  • peaks only
  • …this would facilitate economic growth and the London Plan
technologies for road user charging
Technologies for Road user Charging

London trials of alternative road user charging technologies have shown:

  • Cameras plus ANPR effective solution available now for simple charging schemes.
  • Tag and beacon technology for use in sensitive urban areas for more flexible charging eg charging by direction or time of day could be developed in short term (by 2009).
  • Satellite and mobile phone location systems for ‘specific’ link based distance based charging need further development for affordable accurate use in urban areas (beyond 2010).
possible timeline and charging basis
Possible Timeline and Charging Basis


Single zone

Tags with



Tag take up


Key centres

Strategic routes


Tags with


Beyond 2010


RUC across



OBU take-up


CC Now

Single zone


Re-procurement of CLoCCS/WEZ

Example charge


Central: 60p/km

Inner: 30p/km

Outer: 15p/km

Unequipped vehicles

Pay unattractive flat


Variable charges


  • centre
  • route
  • bridge
  • time of entry/exit
  • direction of travel
  • class of vehicle


1. Single flat rate £8

charge per day

2. Charge by:

  • time of entry/exit
  • direction of travel
  • class of vehicle


£8 charge

Per day

moving forward
Moving Forward
  • Possible ways forward in London to help the DfT take national Road User Charging Forward are:
    • Developing a demonstration cc scheme using tag and beacon in a congested area, of direct relevance to urban areas outside of London, packaged with improved public transport, walking and cycling, green travel plans and environmental improvements;
    • Developing a London-wide GPS trial testing not only the technology, but with sufficient volunteers to test behavioural responses
    • Sharing knowledge on: setting up and running a cc scheme, technology issues, public transport provision and regulation, other complementary measures, in developing pilots elsewhere

We are currently discussing ways to tackle the growing transport problems London with the boroughs and other key stakeholders.

We hope to be considered for TiF because we want to help inform the development of such a significant policy.