Indian Ocean Basin 600-1200 Post Classical Age: 1st Phase
What regions (zones of development) will this include? Indian Subcontinent Innovative Site – Indo-Gagnetic Plain Vedic Age Maurya & Gupta Empires • South Asia • East Africa • Southeast Asia New Zone of ‘Civilization’ Mainland and Island Links to South China Sea New Zone of ‘Civilization’ Horn of Africa Red Sea Connections Sub-Saharan locations
Why the Indian Ocean Basin? How is its development important for our understanding of World History?
What is the nature of the governments working this trade? Politics in the Indian Ocean Basin 600-1200
South Asia: Crisis of Late Antiquity White Huns from central Asia invaded and disrupted Gupta rule after 550… • India’s only degree of central political unity –the Gupta Kings - ceased to exist Political make-up of South Asia
a divided subcontinent North • Political turbulence • Intermittent war • Assimilation of new invaders South • More peaceful • politically fragmented • Dominated by loosely controlled kingdoms… • Chola(850-1267) • Cultural Indianisation of parts of Southeast Asia • Roots of Tamil Identity
Outside the West…. Sub-Saharan Africa… Tribal Communities influenced by outside contacts
Christianity in Africa • Ethiopia 4th Century • Kingdom of Axum • Isolated from other Christian communities • Increasingly reflected African traditions • Evil spirits populate the world
Further South: Swahili Trading city states • >1,500 miles from Mogadishu in the north to Sofala in the south • 1000 to 1500 -prosperous towns and cities • evolved from small agricultural villages to create surpluses for trading • created an elite merchant class (merchant oligarchy*) • *Aristocratic nobles
Southeast Asia Civilization Spreads
Rivers: • Mekong • Irrawaddy • Red • Chao Phraya • South China Sea • Straits • of Malacca • of Sunda • Archipelago • Philippines • Indonesia • Mountains/Highlands? • Rainforests • Monsoons pages 378 - 381
Southeast Asian Development • Characterize Geography (Location, Place, Interaction peo./env., Movement, Region) • Beginnings of Civilization? Unique traditions? • Discuss extent and timing of Indian Influences. • Discuss extent and timing Chinese Influences. • What major political entities dominate the region in the 1st phase of the Post Classical Age? • What changes were taking place by 1200?
Southeast Asian Development: • Indian Influences • Adopted administrative and cultural traditions of India • Hinduism & Buddhism • Embrace Hindu literature: encouraged shared values • Unique to Southeast Asia • Origins unclear- Bronze metallurgy • language • Women’s rights • Nuclear Families • Cultivation of spices • Chinese Influences • Chinese border: Vietnam- Tributary State • Civil service • Bureaucracy • Buddhism • Confucianism
Political Development & Evidence • City States modeled after Indian Administration, gave way to a degree of centralization FUNAN
Trung Sisters Rebellion in Classical Age – Han Period
Changes by 1200…looking forward • Arab traders • Introduction of Islam, among island regions
Southernization Lynda Shaffer
Southernization • In what way does Shaffer’s interpretation challenge traditional views about historical development? • In what way does Shaffer’s interpretation support our tradtional understanding of westernization and ‘the rise of the West’?
IbnBatutta Journey to far parts of the Post Classical World
Ibn Battuta: Travels in Asia and Africa 1325-1354 I left Tangier, my birthplace, on Thursday, 2nd Rajab 725 [June 14, 1325], being at that time twenty-two years of age [22 lunar years; 21 and 4 months by solar reckoning], with the intention of making the Pilgrimage to the Holy House [at Mecca] and the Tomb of the Prophet [at Medina]. I set out alone, finding no companion to cheer the way with friendly intercourse, and no party of travelers with whom to associate myself. Swayed by an overmastering impulse within me, and a long-cherished desire to visit those glorious sanctuaries, I resolved to quit all my friends and tear myself away from my home. As my parents were still alive, it weighed grievously upon me to part from them, and both they and I were afflicted with sorrow. On reaching the city of Tilimsan, whose sultan at that time was Abu Tashifin, I found there two ambassadors of the Sultan of Tunis, who left the city on the same day that I arrived. One of the brethren having advised me to accompany them, I consulted the will of God in this matter, and after a stay of three days in the city to procure all that I needed, I rode after them with all speed. I overtook them at the town of Miliana, where we stayed ten days, as both ambassadors fell sick on account of the summer heats. When we set out again, one of them grew worse, and died after we had stopped for three nights by a stream four miles from Miliana. I left their party there and pursued my journey, with a company of merchants from Tunis.
Understanding the traditions and contributions of the Indian Ocean Basin Religion, Gender and Family Arts and Intellectual Life Labor Systems Racial and Ethnic Constructions In Battuta's Footsteps…
GENDER, FAMILY ARTS, ARCHITECTURE, INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT Putting it all together… INDIAN OCEAN BASIN LABOR AND INDUSTRY RACIAL, ETHNIC CONSTRUCTS
In the absence of singular central governments, what brought this region together, and what were the consequences of these connections?
Recognizing Continuity throughout the Indian Ocean Basin Movement and Economic Integration
Travel & Trade Dhows Junkers Monsoon Winds Lateen Sails • Larger ships could access longer routes and bigger cargo • Dhows (Indian) • Junks (Chinese)
India served as middle – ground • Cities: Cambay, Calicut, Quilon • Storage, clearinghouse • Cosmopolitan centers:(Hindu, Jew, Muslim, Buddhist) Urban Development Cosmopolitan centers Cosmopolitan Islamic cultural centers in East Africa- Swahili city states: Moghidishu, Kilwa, Sofola
Political fragmentation did not prevent production & trade between states • Most agricultural regions self-sufficient • Millet, wheat, barley, rice Production & Specialization • Population growth (India) expansion of irrigation & surplus farming • 600 CE 53 million people • 1500 CE 105 million people • Productive growth led to…increasing specialization • Iron, copper, spices- Indian specialization (cotton textiles, sugar refining) • In East Africa: • ivory from the south, • gold from the western interior • frankincense and myrrh from northern Africa. • (Prosperous Slave trade)
Hindu Temple Economy Served as economic and social centers Ultimately, crucial to success of economy • basic schooling for boys • Ensured caste rules large agricultural lands Employed hundreds of people Delivered tax receipts to local government Served as bankers &cooperated with merchant guilds
Indian Ocean Slave trade • Evolved around the Indian Ocean basin • Slaves were taken from interior mainland East Africa by coastal ‘elite’ Africans • Origins in 2nd century, lasted until the early 20th century • Peak and spread of trade occurred in Post classical Period as part of Arab trade routes • Sold in markets in the Arabian Peninsula and the Persian Gulf
Cultural Diffusion and Integration Recognizing Differences
Hindu Temple- to- Buddhist Stupa Angkor Wat
Khmer Kingdom Peak - 9th to 13th Century Hindu & Buddhist Traditions Angkor (city) served as seat of power • Angkor Wat • Temple complex • Built in 12th Century • first Hindu - dedicated to the god Vishnu • Later replaced by Buddhist followers • high classical style of Khmer architecture