In the name of god. Introducing and Ending topics. pitch level: It can be used to indicate relationship between successive tone units in terms of the informational value speakers attribute to them. Example;
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Introducing and Ending topics
It can be used to indicate relationship between successive tone units in terms of the informational value speakers attribute to them.
Some times He used cut the grass OUR place and some times WE’D cut the grass outside the place.
in this example all underlined words show the function of intonation in conveying contrastive stress.
Some sentences such as:
Good HEAVENS/ does not it give you the CREEPS/ absolutely DREADful/
Display pitch movement.
. What knowledge speakers share about the world
. about each other experience
. about atittude and emoticons
Tones ending in a rise ( fall–rise or rise)
For part pf the message which speaker regards as part of the existing common ground.
Tone ending in a fall ( fall or rise-fall)
for what they see as adding to common ground.
1. Interlocutors negotiate their mutual relationship.
2. They can indicate how they view the topic under discussion.
3. It enables participants to check common ground.
Type of words;
1.Content words (noun, verb, adjective)
Carry the meaning (stressed)
e.g. numb – beautiful
2.Function words (article, prepositions, pronoun, conjunction)
=> Indicate grammatical relationships (unstressed)
e.g. He, in, but
The smallest units we can isolate intuitively or individual sounds which make up utterances.
When we speak, we tend to minimize our articulatory effort by making sounds more like each other.
Living sounds out altogether.
inserting a sound to make for a smoother transition.
In phonology an allophone is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds used to pronounce a single phonem.
Sometimes certain sounds are pronounced differently depending on the position they occur in.
Such as pronunciation of /l/
Clear l => later
Dark l => hospital
Teaching formal grammatical knowledge that provide the basis for communication.
Proficiency in specific aspects of pronunciation/ grammar/ vocabulary can be assessed.
Abstract sentences is important when they isolate the language from complexities of a particular context.
The treatment of language as sentences has been successful in language learning.
Communicative competence requires more than producing and understanding sentence.
Texts in the form of dialogue are used in language teaching.
Dialogues should introduce features of real-life discourse.
Discourse- based activities prepare students more effectively for communication in the target language out side the classroom.
At a macro- level students can be sensitized to;
Gate- keeping contexts
At a micro- level;
Teachers can potentially offer students a continuum of spoken text samples from single sentences to scribed dialogues to semi scribed dialogues to complete natural speech.
They valuable for students because they control vocabulary and grammatical structures.
It is a vehicle for practicing particular patterns through word or sentences-level exercises.
They present spoken discourse as unrealistic and unproblematic.
They rarely reflect the grammar, discourse features.
They are based on recordings where speakers are given a general out line of a dialogue and ask to include features of natural discourse.
Can introduce student to a full range of transactional and interpersonal speech.
They can highlight language variation.
They may also be fragmented (hesitation, false starts, unclear utterance).
They may include many different grammatical features.
Lesson and repeat technique
involves, learners in imitating chunks of language provided by the teacher.
It is used in language laboratory.
e.g. Reading contrasting sounds or words aloud to a class an asking them to decide what has been uttered.
Sounds for meaning contrast:
Use of minimal pairs :
(Pairs of words distinguished by one phonem only) can be embeded in sentence such as;
This BED is not BAD.
Recording of learners production.
Dealing with incomprehensibility.