The Growth of Industry Goal 5
The Age of the Railroads Effects of the Rapid Growth Of Railroads
Some people became Very rich from Profits made in the Railroad industry The Age of the Railroads Many different Regions of America Were now linked Iron, steel, coal, Lumber, and glass Industries grew because The railroad needed Their products Formation of Standard time zones Trade among cities, Towns, and settlements Increased. Communities Grew and prospered Rapid Growth Of Railroads Long distance Travel now Possible for Many Americans New towns created (ex. Pullman factory, Which created sleeping cars For trains, had a town Built around it to Support its workers
Answer these questions in your notebook. • What factors made the Triangle Shirtwaist factory fire in NYC so lethal? • What was the Gentlemen’s Agreement of 1907-1908?
Immigration • Read about what it was like to come through the inspection stations at Ellis Island and Angel Island. • Write a letter home to a friend or family member telling them about your experience at either Ellis Island or Angel Island. (This can be done for homework.)
Civil Service Reform Copy and answers these questions in your notebook. • What is patronage? Why is it bad? • What happened to President Garfield? • What did the Pendleton Civil Service Act do?
Vocabulary Angel Island Melting pot Nativism Chinese Exclusion Act Urbanization Americanization movement Tenements Mass transit Settlement houses Jane Addams Political machine Boss Tweed • Munn v. Illinois • Interstate Commerce Act • Andrew Carnegie • Vertical integration • Horizontal integration • Social Darwinism • John D. Rockefeller • “Robber Barons” • Sherman Antitrust Act • Industrial Workers of the World • Mary Harris Jones • Ellis Island
Industrialization Immigration Urbanization
Emergence of Big Business • The late 19th century witnessed the emergence of big and powerful businesses, which monopolized their industry. • The leaders of these businesses were called “Robber Barons” due to their unscrupulous business practices.
John D. Rockefeller • Rockefeller started Standard Oil Company • Why was oil important?
Trusts • Standard Oil Company was the nation’s first trust. • A trust is a business arrangement in which a number of companies unite into one system. • They want to destroy all competition & create monopolies.
Monopolies • A monopoly is when a business has complete control over an industry’s production, quality, wages paid, and prices charged. • The Sherman Anti-trust Act prevented the creation of monopolies by making it illegal to establish trusts that interfere with free trade.
Andrew Carnegie • Andrew Carnegie founded a steel company in Pittsburgh, PA (THINK: Pittsburgh Steelers). • Steel was important to the railroad industry. • He was a millionaire philanthropist who began the public library system. • He used vertical and horizontal integration to build his steel empire.
Vertical Integration • A business buys out all of its suppliers • EX: McDonalds would buy out the makers of: • Buns (Merita Bread Company) • Ketchup (Heinz) • Meat (Smithfield Meats) • French Fries (Idaho)
Horizontal Integration • A business buys out all of its competitors • For example, McDonald’s would buy out: • Burger King • KFC • Taco Bell • Sonic
Social Darwinism • Social Darwinism was a philosophy of this time period which drew from Darwin’s theory of evolution. • Put in terms of society, Social Darwinism states that it is acceptable for businesses to be big and controlling, because society is all about the “survival of the fittest”. • The weak help the strong survive & thrive.
Problems for Workers • Many problems were faced by workers in factories: • Long hours • Low pay • No benefits (health insurance, sick leave) • Dangerous working conditions • Child labor
Video Questions- “A Child on Strike” • What was your reaction to Camella Teoli’s accident? • What labor practices are taken for granted today that were not afforded to people living in 1910?
Workers Unite • Workers united and formed labor unions, which demanded improved working conditions • Labor unions would strike (work stoppages by union members as a form of protest) • Key labor unions included: • National Labor Union • Industrial Workers of the World (Wobblies) • American Railway Union • American Federation of Labor (founded by Samuel Gompers) • Knights of Labor
New Immigrants Assimilate • Immigrants came to America to work in factories. • They often faced culture shock, confusion & anxiety resulting in becoming a part of a new culture that you do not understand. • America became a melting pot, a mixture of different people and cultures who blend together and abandon their native language and culture.
Immigration Stations • Ellis Island, New York (Statue of Liberty) was the inspection station for European immigrants. • Angel Island, San Francisco, CA was the inspection station for Asian immigrants. • In 1887, the Chinese Exclusion Act was passed which banned entry of all Chinese immigrants, except students, teachers, merchants, tourists, and government officials.
Video Questions- “From China to Chinatown: Fong See’s American Dream” • How did Fong See overcome the difficulties facing Asian immigrants in America during his lifetime? • What did Lisa See learn about living in a diverse society from her great-grandfather’s experience?
Urban Reforms • A movement called the Social Gospel preached salvation through service to the poor • Settlement houses were created, as community centers for people in urban areas, especially immigrants. • Settlement houses provided educational, cultural, and social services.
The Gilded Age • The time period from 1877-early 1900s is known as the “Gilded Age”. • Writer Mark Twain coined this term. • Gilded is something covered in a thin layer of gold to make it look nice & shiny. • This expression was used to imply that the time period appeared to be prosperous, but that appearance was just covering up the poverty and corruption ofsociety.
Political Machines • A new power structure emerged in the cities to take control, called political machines. • The political machine was an unofficial entity that kept a certain political party in power. • Political machines were headed by a “boss” who may or may not hold a political office himself.
William “Boss” Tweed, Tammany HallBoss of the NYC Democratic Party
The Purpose of the Political Machines • Political machines provided services to the city, such as police & fire departments. • In exchange for votes, the political machines would provide jobs and other services for immigrants.
Government Corruption • Many political machines and government officials became corrupt as their power grew. • Graft (using political influence for personal gain) & “kickbacks” (taking money from government construction projects) were common. • Ex. Boss Tweed built a NYC Courthouse which actually cost $3 million, but the taxpayers were charged $13 million
TEST REVIEW • Industrialization-Immigration-Urbanization • Industrialization: new technologies led to industrialization; robber barons; Rockefeller & Carnegie; Social Darwinism; monopolies; horizontal/vertical integration; trusts- Sherman Antitrust Act= no monopolies • Immigration: Ellis/Angel Island; discrimination; melting pot/assimilation; why they came?; exploitation (problems) of worker; emergence of labor unions • Urbanization: urban problems; reforms; settlement houses; political machine