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Map Link: The Muslim Conquests: < http://faculty.polytechnic.org/gzetlian/images/maps/ muslimconquestsmap.gif > Keep this handy!. khalifat rasul allah = “ successor to the Messenger of God ” = caliph. the rashidun (rightly-guided caliphs):. 632-634 Abu Bakr

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slide1

Map Link: The Muslim Conquests:

<http://faculty.polytechnic.org/gzetlian/images/maps/

muslimconquestsmap.gif>

Keep this handy!

slide2

khalifat rasul allah = “successor to the

Messenger of God” = caliph

the rashidun (rightly-guided caliphs):

632-634 Abu Bakr

634-644 ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab

644-656 ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan

656-661 ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib

followed by:

the Umayyad dynasty (r. 661-750)

slide3

632-34 Wars of the Ridda

jihad (struggle/holy war)

636 Battle of the Yarmuk

637 Damascus taken

slide4

637 Persian army destroyed at

Qadisiyya. Ctesiphon taken.

654 Completion of conquest of

Khurasan

639-42 Muslim conquest of Egypt. Fustat

founded.

diwan (register)

slide5

644 Death of ‘Umar

655 Muslims defeat Byzantines at sea,

take Cyprus.

656 Death of ‘Uthman. Outbreak of civil

war.

661 Death of ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib. Mu‘awiya

ibn Abi Sufyan founds Umayyad

dynasty, which rules until 750.

slide6

Merv Bukhara Samarqand

Transoxiana Amu Darya/Oxus

Indus Sind

slide7

717-18 Last Muslim attempt to take

Constantinople

Berbers Visigoths

711-16 Muslims conquer Spain

732/733 Charles Martel defeats Muslims at

Tours/Poitiers

717-20 Caliphate of ‘Umar II (‘Umar ibn

‘Abd al-‘Aziz)

slide8

Muhammad ibn Idris al-Shafi‘i (767-820)

Founder of the Shafi‘i school of law

Brought up in Mecca. Studied in Medina under

Malik ibn Anas (d. 795).

Spent time in Yemen, Egypt, Iraq incl.

Baghdad (where worked as a teacher),

Mecca, then back in Egypt (Fustat),

where died.

slide9

Muhammad ibn Idris al-Shafi‘i (767-820)

Wrote many legal works, including:

Risala (defense of Prophetic hadith as

first source of law after Qur’an)

Kitab al-Umm (legal teaching on

various subjects)