Intro to IPv6

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# Intro to IPv6 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Intro to IPv6. The Basics of IPv6 / EIGRP Routing. IPv6 Address Notation. 128-bit IPv6 addresses are represented in: Eight 16-bit segments Hexadecimal (non-case sensitive) between 0000 and FFFF Separated by colons Example: 3ffe:1944:0100:000a:0000:00bc:2500:0d0b.

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### Intro to IPv6

The Basics of IPv6 / EIGRP Routing

• 128-bit IPv6 addresses are represented in:
• Eight 16-bit segments
• Hexadecimal (non-case sensitive) between 0000 and FFFF
• Separated by colons
• Example:
• 3ffe:1944:0100:000a:0000:00bc:2500:0d0b

One Hex digit = 4 bits

• Two rules for reducing the size of written IPv6 addresses.
• The first rule is:
• The leading zeroes in any 16-bit segment do not have to be written.
• Example
• 3ffe : 1944 : 0100 : 000a : 0000 : 00bc : 2500 : 0d0b
• 3ffe : 1944 : 100 : a : 0 : bc : 2500 : d0b
Rule 2: Double colon :: equals 0000…0000
• The second rule can reduce this address even further:
• Any single, contiguous string of one or more 16-bit segments consisting of all zeroes can be represented with a double colon.

ff02 : 0000 : 0000 : 0000 : 0000 : 0000 : 0000 : 0005

ff02 : 0 : 0 : 0 : 0 : 0 : 0 : 5

ff02 : : 5

ff02::5

Network Prefixes
• IPv4, the prefix—the network portion of the address—can be identified by a dotted decimal netmask or bitcount.

255.255.255.0 or /24

• IPv6 prefixes are always identified by bitcount (prefix length).
• Prefix length notation:

3ffe:1944:100:a::/64

16 32 48 64 bits

• All zeroes IPv6 address can be written with a double colon ::
• There are two cases where an all-zeroes address is used.

1. Default address, address is all zeroes and the prefix length is zero:

::/0

2. Unspecified address, which is used in some Neighbor Discovery Protocol procedures (later).

• An unspecified address is a filler, indicating the absence of a real IPv6 address.
• When writing an unspecified address, it is differentiated from a default address by its prefix length:

::/128

• Equivalent to 127.0.0.1 in IPv4
• This address is used when a host talks to itself.
• Loopback or Local Host Address

0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1/128

or

::1/128

• The three types of IPv6 address follow:
• 1. Unicast
• Global Unicast
• Globally unique
• Routed globally with no modification
• 2. Multicast
• 3. Anycast
• There is, however, an "all nodes" multicast address, which serves essentially the same purpose as a broadcast address.
Subnetting IPv6

2340:1111:AAAA::/48

• A typical IPv6 site prefix will be /48
• This creates a 16 bit subnet part of the address structure
• Allows for 216, or 65,536, subnets!
• There are no concerns about needing an all 0’s or all 1’s subnet in IPv6!
• 64 bit host field allows for 264 hosts per subnet.
• More than 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 addresses per subnet.
• Allows of the automatic IPv6 address assignment features to work well (later).
Subnetting IPv6

/64

• 4 specific subnets to be used inside Company1:
• 2340:1111:AAAA:0001::/64
• 2340:1111:AAAA:0002::/64
• 2340:1111:AAAA:0003::/64
• 2340:1111:AAAA:0004::/64
• Note: A valid abbreviation is to remove the 3 leading 0’s from the last shown quartet.
• 2340:1111:AAAA:1::/64
IPv6 Routing Protocols
• Exactly the same as IPv4 routing protocols only different.
• IPv6 Static routes
• OSPFv3 (defined in RFC 5340, OSPF for IPv6)
• EIGRP for IPv6
• RIP next generation (RIPng) (defined in RFC 2080, RIPng for IPv6)
• Multiprotocol Border Gateway Protocol Version 4 (MP-BGP4 or MBGP) (defined in RFC 2545, Use of BGP-4 Multiprotocol Extensions for IPv6 Inter-Domain Routing, and RFC 4760, Multiprotocol Extensions for BGP-4)
ipv6 unicast-routing
• ipv6 unicast-routing global configuration command
• Enables IPv6 routing
• Required before any ipv6 routing protocol can be configured
• ipv6 router rip name command
• Enables IPv6 rip routing

R1(config)# ipv6 router rip luigi

% IPv6 routing not enabled

R1(config)# ipv6 unicast-routing

R1(config)# ipv6 router rip luigi

R1(config-rtr)#

R1 (Example configuration)

ipv6 unicast-routing

interface FastEthernet0/0

!

interface Serial0/0/0

clock rate 64000

!

interface Serial0/0/1

Verify

R1# show ip inter brief

Interface IP-Address OK? Method Status Protocol

FastEthernet0/0 unassigned YES unset up up

FastEthernet0/1 unassigned YES unset administratively down down

Serial0/0/0 unassigned YES unset up up

Serial0/0/1 unassigned YES unset up up

R1#

R1# show ipv6 inter brief

FastEthernet0/0 [up/up]

FE80::21B:CFF:FEC2:82D8

2340:1111:AAAA:101::1

Serial0/0/0 [up/up]

FE80::21B:CFF:FEC2:82D8

2340:1111:AAAA:A01::1

Serial0/0/1 [up/up]

FE80::21B:CFF:FEC2:82D8

2340:1111:AAAA:A03::1

R1#

Verify

R1 #ping 2340:1111:AAAA:0A01::2

Type escape sequence to abort.

Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 2340:1111:AAAA:A01::2, timeout is 2 seconds:

!!!!!

Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 28/28/28 ms

R1#

Verify

R1# debug ipv6 packet

IPv6 unicast packet debugging is on

R1# ping 2340:1111:AAAA:0A01::2

Type escape sequence to abort.

Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 2340:1111:AAAA:A01::2, timeout is 2 seconds:

!!!!!

Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 28/28/28 ms

R1#

*Jun 19 16:19:13.181: IPv6: SAS picked source 2340:1111:AAAA:A01::1 for 2340:1111:AAAA:A01::2 (Serial0/0/0)

*Jun 19 16:19:13.181: IPV6: source 2340:1111:AAAA:A01::1 (local)

*Jun 19 16:19:13.181: dest 2340:1111:AAAA:A01::2 (Serial0/0/0)

*Jun 19 16:19:13.181: traffic class 0, flow 0x0, len 100+0, prot 58, hops 64, originating

Jun 19 16:19:13.241: IPV6: source 2340:1111:AAAA:A01::2 (Serial0/0/0)

*Jun 19 16:19:13.241: dest 2340:1111:AAAA:A01::1

*Jun 19 16:19:13.241: traffic class 0, flow 0x0, len 100+4, prot 58, hops 64, forward to ulp

R1# un all

ICMPv6

Default Static Route

• IPv6 default static route, which is equivalent to IPv4 ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0

Router(config)# ipv6 route ::/0 serial 0/0/0

Static Routes: Example

R1(config)# ipv6 route 2340:1111:AAAA:0102::/64 ser 0/0/0

R1# show ipv6 route

<output omitted>

S 2340:1111:AAAA:102::/64 [1/0]

via ::, Serial0/0/0

C 2340:1111:AAAA:A01::/64 [0/0]

via ::, Serial0/0/0

R2(config)# ipv6 route 2340:1111:AAAA:0101::/64 2340:1111:AAAA:0A01::1

R2# show ipv6 route

<output omitted>

S 2340:1111:AAAA:101::/64 [1/0]

via 2340:1111:AAAA:A01::1

R2# ping 2340:1111:AAAA:0101::1

Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 2340:1111:AAAA:101::1, timeout is 2 seconds:

!!!!!

Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 28/28/28 ms

R2#

Static Routes: Propagated w/ RIP
• ipv6 rip name default-informationoriginate
• Example:

Router(config-if)# ipv6 rip process1 default-information originate

EIGRP for IPv6
• Available in Cisco IOS Release 12.4(6)T and later
• EIGRP for IPv4 and IPv6 are configured and managed separately although many of the commands are similar.
• EIGRP for IPv6 is configured on a per-interface basis, no network command is used.
• EIGRP for IPv6 has a shutdown feature which is the default state.
• EIGRP for IPv6 does not do automatic summarization like EIGRP for IPv4.
• EIGRP for IPv6 sues the neighbors link-local address as the next-hop IP address (neighbor table, topology table, routing table).
• EIGRP for IPv6 does not require neighbors to be in the same IPv6 subnet to become neighbors.
EIGRP for IPv6
• EIGRP Router ID decision steps based on IPv4 configuration:
• Use the configured value (using the eigrp router-id a.b.c.dEIGRP subcommand under the ipv6 router eigrpcommand)
• Use the highest IPv4 address on an up/up loopback interface
• Use the highest IPv4 address on an up/up non-loopback interface

Note: In an IPv6 only environment the eigrp router-id command must be used otherwise the router will not form any EIGRP adjacencies.

• IOS lets you stop and start the EIGRP process with the shutdown and no shutdown router mode subcommands.
• After initial configuration, the EIGRP for IPv6 process starts in shutdown mode,
• To start the EIGRP process it is required to issue the no shutdown
Configuring R1
• EIGRP for IPv6 is configured on the interfaces.
• There are no network commands

R1(config)# inter fa 0/0

R1(config-if)# ipv6 eigrp 100

R1(config)# inter ser 0/0/0

R1(config-if)# ipv6 eigrp 100

R1(config)# inter ser 0/0/1

R1(config-if)# ipv6 eigrp 100

Routing Table…

R1# show ipv6 route

IPv6 Routing Table - 8 entries

<output omitted>

D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external

C 2340:1111:AAAA:101::/64 [0/0]

via ::, FastEthernet0/0

L 2340:1111:AAAA:101::1/128 [0/0]

via ::, FastEthernet0/0

C 2340:1111:AAAA:A01::/64 [0/0]

via ::, Serial0/0/0

L 2340:1111:AAAA:A01::1/128 [0/0]

via ::, Serial0/0/0

C 2340:1111:AAAA:A03::/64 [0/0]

via ::, Serial0/0/1

L 2340:1111:AAAA:A03::1/128 [0/0]

via ::, Serial0/0/1

L FE80::/10 [0/0]

via ::, Null0

L FF00::/8 [0/0]

via ::, Null0

• There are no EIGRP IPv6 routes in the routing table... yet.
Show ipv6 protocols
• There is an EIGRP 100 for IPv6 process but the interfaces are not yet enabled for EIGRP IPv6 because the process is shutdown.

R1# show ipv6 protocols

IPv6 Routing Protocol is "connected"

IPv6 Routing Protocol is "static"

IPv6 Routing Protocol is "eigrp 100"

EIGRP metric weight K1=1, K2=0, K3=1, K4=0, K5=0

EIGRP maximum hopcount 100

EIGRP maximum metric variance 1

Interfaces:

Redistribution:

None

Maximum path: 16

Distance: internal 90 external 170

R1# show ipv6 eigrp neighbors

IPv6-EIGRP neighbors for process 100

% EIGRP 100 is in SHUTDOWN

R1#

Enabling EIGRP for IPv6
• The EIGRP for IPv6 process must be enabled with the no shutdown command.

R1(config)# inter fa 0/0

R1(config-if)# ipv6 eigrp 100

R1(config)# inter ser 0/0/0

R1(config-if)# ipv6 eigrp 100

R1(config)# inter ser 0/0/1

R1(config-if)# ipv6 eigrp 100

<The commands above were already completed>

R1(config)# ipv6 router eigrp 100

R1(config-rtr)# router-id ?

A.B.C.D EIGRP Router-ID in IP address format

R1(config-rtr)# router-id 1.1.1.1

R1(config-rtr)# no shutdown

Verifying

R1# show ipv6 protocols

IPv6 Routing Protocol is "connected"

IPv6 Routing Protocol is "static"

IPv6 Routing Protocol is "eigrp 100"

EIGRP metric weight K1=1, K2=0, K3=1, K4=0, K5=0

EIGRP maximum hopcount 100

EIGRP maximum metric variance 1

Interfaces:

FastEthernet0/0

Serial0/0/0

Serial0/0/1

Redistribution:

None

Maximum path: 16

Distance: internal 90 external 170

R1# show ipv6 eigrp neighbors

IPv6-EIGRP neighbors for process 100

• The EIGRP for IPv6 process has been enabled but we don’t have any neighbors... yet.
Verifying
• Notice that EIGRP for IPv6 uses link-local addresses to exchange EIGRP messages.

R1# show ipv6 eigrp neighbors

IPv6-EIGRP neighbors for process 100

H Address Interface Hold Uptime SRTT RTO Q Seq

(sec) (ms) Cnt Num

FE80::3

FE80::2

R1#

EIGRP for IPv6 Topology Table

R1# show ipv6 eigrp topology

IPv6-EIGRP Topology Table for AS(100)/ID(1.1.1.1)

Codes: P - Passive, A - Active, U - Update, Q - Query, R - Reply,

r - reply Status, s - sia Status

P 4444:0:0:4001::/64, 1 successors, FD is 2684416

via FE80::3 (2684416/2172416), Serial0/0/1

P 2340:1111:AAAA:103::/64, 1 successors, FD is 2172416

via FE80::3 (2172416/28160), Serial0/0/1

P 2340:1111:AAAA:A03::/64, 1 successors, FD is 2169856

via Connected, Serial0/0/1

P 2340:1111:AAAA:B02::/64, 1 successors, FD is 2681856

via FE80::3 (2681856/2169856), Serial0/0/1

P 2340:1111:AAAA:A02::/64, 1 successors, FD is 2681856

via FE80::2 (2681856/2169856), Serial0/0/0

P 2340:1111:AAAA:102::/64, 1 successors, FD is 2172416

via FE80::2 (2172416/28160), Serial0/0/0

P 2340:1111:AAAA:B01::/64, 1 successors, FD is 2681856

via FE80::3 (2681856/2169856), Serial0/0/1

P 2340:1111:AAAA:A01::/64, 1 successors, FD is 2169856

via Connected, Serial0/0/0

P 2340:1111:AAAA:101::/64, 1 successors, FD is 28160

via Connected, FastEthernet0/0

R1#

• .
IPv6 Routing Table

R1# show ipv6 route

IPv6 Routing Table - 14 entries

Codes: C - Connected, L - Local, S - Static, R - RIP, B - BGP

<output omitted>

D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external

C 2340:1111:AAAA:101::/64 [0/0]

via ::, FastEthernet0/0

L 2340:1111:AAAA:101::1/128 [0/0]

via ::, FastEthernet0/0

D 2340:1111:AAAA:102::/64 [90/2172416]

via FE80::2, Serial0/0/0

D 2340:1111:AAAA:103::/64 [90/2172416]

via FE80::3, Serial0/0/1

<output omitted>

D 2340:1111:AAAA:B01::/64 [90/2681856]

via FE80::3, Serial0/0/1

D 2340:1111:AAAA:B02::/64 [90/2681856]

via FE80::3, Serial0/0/1

D 4444:0:0:4001::/64 [90/2684416]

via FE80::3, Serial0/0/1

Verify

R1# ping 4444:0:0:4001::1

Type escape sequence to abort.

Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 4444:0:0:4001::1, timeout is 2 seconds:

!!!!!

Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 56/56/60 ms

R1#

Default Route (one method)

R3(config)# inter ser 0/0/0

R3(config-if)# ipv6 summary-address eigrp 100 ::/0

R3(config)# inter ser 0/0/1

R3(config-if)# ipv6 summary-address eigrp 100 ::/0

R3(config)# ipv6 route ::/0 ser 0/1/0

R3(config)# ipv6 route ::/0 ser 0/1/1

R3# show ipv6 route

S ::/0 [1/0]

via ::, Serial0/1/0

via ::, Serial0/1/1

<output omitted>

Propagate an EIGRP ::/0 summary route to R1 and R2

Create the default static route

Verify static route

Verify Static Route

R1# show ipv6 route

D ::/0 [90/2172416]

via FE80::3, Serial0/0/1

C 2340:1111:AAAA:101::/64 [0/0]

via ::, FastEthernet0/0

L 2340:1111:AAAA:101::1/128 [0/0]

via ::, FastEthernet0/0

D 2340:1111:AAAA:102::/64 [90/2172416]

via FE80::2, Serial0/0/0

<output omitted>

R1# ping 4444::1

Type escape sequence to abort.

Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 4444::1, timeout is 2 seconds:

!!!!!

Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 56/56/56 ms

R1#