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AP Biology . Pay for your AP EXAM by April 5 BEGIN STUDYING FOR AP EXAM!. Ecology Unit Chapter 52-56. Biosphere - This is the sum of all the planet’s ecosystems and landscape How regional exchange influences the distributions across biosphere. Landscape Ecology .

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ap biology

AP Biology

Pay for your AP EXAM by April 5


ecology unit chapter 52 56
Ecology Unit Chapter 52-56

Biosphere -

  • This is the sum of all the planet’s ecosystems and landscape
  • How regional exchange influences the distributions across biosphere
landscape ecology
Landscape Ecology
  • Focuses on the factors controlling exchanges of energy, materials, and organisms across multiple ecosystems
  • Focuses on factors controlling exchanges of energy and materials along multiple ecosystems
  • The community of organisms in the area and the physical factors with which the organisms interact.
  • Emphasis on energy flow and chemical cycling
  • A group of populations of different species in an area
  • Interactions between species – and how that affects community structure
population ecology
Population Ecology
  • Group of individuals of the same species in the same area
  • Factors that affect population size, how and why populations change over time
organismal ecology
Organismal Ecology
  • How an organism’s structure, physiology, and behavior meet the challenges posed by its environment

How large bodies of water and mountains affect climate

Abiotic factors – nonliving factors, chemicals, temperature, light, water, nutrients,

Biotic factors – living factors, other organisms


Biomes – major life zone classifications characterized by vegetation type and physical environment

distribution of species
Distribution of Species

Dispersal – movement of individuals or gametes away from their area of origin or from centers of high population density

chapter 53
Chapter 53

Population – group of individuals of a single species living in the same general area

Density - # of individuals (volume)

Dispersion – pattern spacing of individuals

analysis hector s dolphins
Analysis – Hector’s dolphins
  • Mark- recapture method
    • Capture, tag, release random sample
    • Second capture
    • Sample 1: s
    • Sample 2: n
    • Marked: x
    • Pop. Size N
    • N=
  • First sampling: 180
  • Second sampling: 44
  • 7 had already been tagged
  • What's the population size?

Study of population statistics, and how populations change over time

exponential growth
Exponential growth

N = population size

t = time

∆N = change in population size

∆t = time interval

B = births

D = deaths

K = carrying capacity

rmax = max growth rate per capita





life history patterns
Life history patterns

K – selection

R – selection

ap bio
AP Bio

Finish Ecology


Prepare for exam! 

population density
Population Density
  • Density independent factors
    • A factor that may restrict population growth regardless of the current population
      • Natural disasters
      • Drought
  • Density dependent factors
    • A factor that depends upon the current population
      • Competition
      • Predation
      • Disease (crowding of individuals)
global carrying capacity
Global Carrying Capacity
  • Estimates of carrying capacity
    • Habitable land
    • Limiting factors (food, water, etc)
    • Ecological footprint
chapter 54
Chapter 54
  • Interspecific interactions
    • Interspecific competition (-/-)
    • Herbivory (+/-)
    • Predation (+/-)
      • Cryptic coloration (camouflage)
      • Aposematic coloration (warning coloration)
      • Batesian mimicry – a palatable or harmless species mimics an unpalatable or harmful one
      • Mullerian mimicry – 2 unpalatable or harmful species resemble each other

Parasitism (+/-)

Commensalism (+/o)

Mutualism (+/+)

Facilitation (+/+) (+/o)

species with large impact
Species with Large Impact
  • Dominant species
    • The most abundant or that collectively have the highest biomass in the area.
    • Hypothesis is they are competitively superior
    • Hypothesis they resist avoiding predation
species with a large impact
Species with a Large Impact
  • Keystone species
    • Not abundant in a community
    • Exert a strong control in a community not because of #, but because of their ecological roles
  • Sea otter
    • Sea otters feed on sea urchins
    • Sea urchins feed on kelp
    • Orcas now prey on sea otters (usual prey has declined)
keystone species
Keystone species

Sea star


Species diversity

ecological succession
Ecological Succession

Primary succession – first organisms to colonize an area

ecological succession1
Ecological Succession

Secondary Succession

ecological succession2
Ecological Succession

Secondary Succession

chapter 55
Chapter 55

Law of conservation of mass

Mass is conserved – we can determine how much of a chemical element cycles within an ecosystem or is gained or lost by the ecosystem over time

energy budgets
Energy budgets

Gross primary production – amount of light converted into chemical energy

Net primary production – GPP – energy used by primary producers

NPP = GPP – Ra

chapter 56
Chapter 56

3 levels of biodiversity

Genetic diversity

Species diversity

Ecosystem diversity

genetic diversity
Genetic diversity

Genetic variation within a population


Genetic variation between populations

species diversity
Species Diversity



ecosystem diversity
Ecosystem diversity

Local extinction of one organism can have a negative impact because of all the interactions between organisms within an ecosystem

threats to biodiversity
Threats to biodiversity

Habitat loss

Introduced species (non-native)

Overharvesting (wild organisms)

Global change


Fragmentation and edges

Movement corridors

Preserving biodiversity hot spots

change due to human actions
Change due to Human Actions

Nutrient enrichment


Toxins in environment

    • Biological magnification
    • DDT