ap biology n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
AP Biology PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
AP Biology

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 68

AP Biology - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 128 Views
  • Uploaded on

AP Biology . Pay for your AP EXAM by April 5 BEGIN STUDYING FOR AP EXAM!. Ecology Unit Chapter 52-56. Biosphere - This is the sum of all the planet’s ecosystems and landscape How regional exchange influences the distributions across biosphere. Landscape Ecology .

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'AP Biology' - gracie


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
ap biology

AP Biology

Pay for your AP EXAM by April 5

BEGIN STUDYING FOR AP EXAM!

ecology unit chapter 52 56
Ecology Unit Chapter 52-56

Biosphere -

  • This is the sum of all the planet’s ecosystems and landscape
  • How regional exchange influences the distributions across biosphere
landscape ecology
Landscape Ecology
  • Focuses on the factors controlling exchanges of energy, materials, and organisms across multiple ecosystems
  • Focuses on factors controlling exchanges of energy and materials along multiple ecosystems
ecosystem
Ecosystem
  • The community of organisms in the area and the physical factors with which the organisms interact.
  • Emphasis on energy flow and chemical cycling
community
Community
  • A group of populations of different species in an area
  • Interactions between species – and how that affects community structure
population ecology
Population Ecology
  • Group of individuals of the same species in the same area
  • Factors that affect population size, how and why populations change over time
organismal ecology
Organismal Ecology
  • How an organism’s structure, physiology, and behavior meet the challenges posed by its environment
slide8

How large bodies of water and mountains affect climate

Abiotic factors – nonliving factors, chemicals, temperature, light, water, nutrients,

Biotic factors – living factors, other organisms

biomes
Biomes

Biomes – major life zone classifications characterized by vegetation type and physical environment

distribution of species
Distribution of Species

Dispersal – movement of individuals or gametes away from their area of origin or from centers of high population density

chapter 53
Chapter 53

Population – group of individuals of a single species living in the same general area

Density - # of individuals (volume)

Dispersion – pattern spacing of individuals

analysis hector s dolphins
Analysis – Hector’s dolphins
  • Mark- recapture method
    • Capture, tag, release random sample
    • Second capture
    • Sample 1: s
    • Sample 2: n
    • Marked: x
    • Pop. Size N
    • N=
problem
Problem
  • First sampling: 180
  • Second sampling: 44
  • 7 had already been tagged
  • What's the population size?
demography
Demography

Study of population statistics, and how populations change over time

exponential growth
Exponential growth

N = population size

t = time

∆N = change in population size

∆t = time interval

B = births

D = deaths

K = carrying capacity

rmax = max growth rate per capita

slide24

dN

rmaxN

dt

life history patterns
Life history patterns

K – selection

R – selection

ap bio
AP Bio

Finish Ecology

Activity

Prepare for exam! 

population density
Population Density
  • Density independent factors
    • A factor that may restrict population growth regardless of the current population
      • Natural disasters
      • Drought
  • Density dependent factors
    • A factor that depends upon the current population
      • Competition
      • Predation
      • Disease (crowding of individuals)
global carrying capacity
Global Carrying Capacity
  • Estimates of carrying capacity
    • Habitable land
    • Limiting factors (food, water, etc)
    • Ecological footprint
chapter 54
Chapter 54
  • Interspecific interactions
    • Interspecific competition (-/-)
    • Herbivory (+/-)
    • Predation (+/-)
      • Cryptic coloration (camouflage)
      • Aposematic coloration (warning coloration)
      • Batesian mimicry – a palatable or harmless species mimics an unpalatable or harmful one
      • Mullerian mimicry – 2 unpalatable or harmful species resemble each other
symbiosis
Symbiosis

Parasitism (+/-)

Commensalism (+/o)

Mutualism (+/+)

Facilitation (+/+) (+/o)

species with large impact
Species with Large Impact
  • Dominant species
    • The most abundant or that collectively have the highest biomass in the area.
    • Hypothesis is they are competitively superior
    • Hypothesis they resist avoiding predation
species with a large impact
Species with a Large Impact
  • Keystone species
    • Not abundant in a community
    • Exert a strong control in a community not because of #, but because of their ecological roles
example
Example:
  • Sea otter
    • Sea otters feed on sea urchins
    • Sea urchins feed on kelp
    • Orcas now prey on sea otters (usual prey has declined)
keystone species
Keystone species

Sea star

Muscles

Species diversity

ecological succession
Ecological Succession

Primary succession – first organisms to colonize an area

ecological succession1
Ecological Succession

Secondary Succession

ecological succession2
Ecological Succession

Secondary Succession

chapter 55
Chapter 55

Law of conservation of mass

Mass is conserved – we can determine how much of a chemical element cycles within an ecosystem or is gained or lost by the ecosystem over time

energy budgets
Energy budgets

Gross primary production – amount of light converted into chemical energy

Net primary production – GPP – energy used by primary producers

NPP = GPP – Ra

chapter 56
Chapter 56

3 levels of biodiversity

Genetic diversity

Species diversity

Ecosystem diversity

genetic diversity
Genetic diversity

Genetic variation within a population

AND

Genetic variation between populations

species diversity
Species Diversity

Endangered

Threatened

ecosystem diversity
Ecosystem diversity

Local extinction of one organism can have a negative impact because of all the interactions between organisms within an ecosystem

threats to biodiversity
Threats to biodiversity

Habitat loss

Introduced species (non-native)

Overharvesting (wild organisms)

Global change

slide65

Fragmentation and edges

Movement corridors

Preserving biodiversity hot spots

change due to human actions
Change due to Human Actions

Nutrient enrichment

slide67

Toxins in environment

    • Biological magnification
    • DDT