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Persuasion. Getting people to agree with you. Part II: Types of Arguments. Subject. Audience. Text. CONTEXT. LOGOS: Facts about the subject/situation. ETHOS: Character of the writer. PATHOS: Emotions of the audience. Writer. Ethos: character of the writer.

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Persuasion

Getting people to agree with you

Part II: Types of Arguments

slide2

Subject

Audience

Text

CONTEXT

LOGOS:

Facts about the subject/situation

ETHOS:

Character of the writer

PATHOS:

Emotions of the audience

Writer

slide3

Ethos: character of the writer

  • Should not be a major issue in this kind of paper
  • Establish your credibility by showing that you know your material:
    • Use appropriate (scholarly) sources
    • Use appropriate language/conventions
    • Draw reasonable conclusions
    • Avoid name-calling and other unseemly tactics
    • Avoid too many emotional appeals
slide4

Logos: facts about the subject/situation

  • Should be the major strategy for academic papers
  • Present the facts and connect the dots
  • Use lots of evidence, and from different sources
  • Use logic, not emotion, to refute opposing arguments
    • Avoid “straw men” and other fallacies
    • Show how opposing arguments aren’t logical OR aren’t practical OR aren’t as good as your arguments
slide5

Pathos: emotions of the audience

  • Use only sparingly in academic papers
  • Appeal to values such as honesty, integrity, & fairness
  • Generally most effective for closing arguments
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Intro: Announce the topic and the issues; state common ground.

ETHOS

Establish your credibility with clear, concise, dispassionate explanations.

Argue against your position.

Make the case for the other side, then use “but” to show potential problems with those arguments.

LOGOS

Argue for your position.

Offer alternative arguments, showing how they are preferable to, or at least less undesirable than, the initial ideas.

LOGOS

Remind the reader of your common ground, and show how your position offers the better path to that ground.

PATHOS

Here’s where you can use a little pathos, if necessary, to “close the deal.”