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Constructivism. Stephen Hass, Kaleb Bryant, and Vivian Choong. Pragmatism. Montessori Method. Dewey 1903. Dewey’s early idealism gave way to an empirically based theory of knowledge that was in accordance with the then developing American school of thought known as pragmatism . 

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Stephen Hass, Kaleb Bryant, and Vivian Choong



Montessori Method

dewey 1903
Dewey 1903
  • Dewey’s early idealism gave way to an empirically based theory of knowledge that was in accordance with the then developing American school of thought known as pragmatism. 
  • This change in view finally merged into four essays entitled collectively “Thought and its Subject-Matter,” which was published along with a number of other essays by Dewey’s colleagues and students at Chicago under the title Studies in Logical Theory.

dewey 1907
Dewey 1907
  • Pragmatism was published
    • Argued that the traditional correspondence theory of truth, according to which the true idea is one that agrees or corresponds to reality, only begs the question of what the “agreement” or “correspondence” of idea with reality is
    • Dewey and James maintained that an idea agrees with reality, and is therefore true, if and only if it is successfully employed in human action in pursuit of human goals and interests, that is, if it leads to the resolution of a problematic situation in Dewey’s terms
montessori 1907
Montessori 1907
  • Study of "normal" children: fifty poor children of the San Lorenzo slum on the outskirts of Rome
  • People coming from far and wide to see the children in the Casa dei Bambini for themselves due to her unprecedented success
  • Discovered the realized potential of these children

montessori 1915
Montessori 1915
  • Dr. Montessori spoke at Carnegie Hall and was invited to set up a classroom at the Panama-Pacific Exposition in San Francisco
  • Spectators watched twenty-one children under the Montessori method, behind a glass wall for four months
  • The only two gold medals awarded for education went to this class
  • The education of young children was altered forever – Montessori Method
piaget 1924
Piaget 1924*
  • Schema
  • Way of organizing knowledge
  • Linked mental representations
  • Schemas can be innate
  • Useful for storing concepts in the long-term memory

piaget 1926
Piaget 1926*

Assimilation, Accommodation, Equilibration

  • Assimilation: uses an existing schema to handle a new object or situation
  • Accommodation: used when the existing schema is not sufficient to handle a new situation
  • Equilibration: the driving force that moves development along
  • The inability to process new information with assimilation leads to equilibration so that the information can be accommodated
vygotsky 1927
Vygotsky 1927*
  • Defined the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)
    • Level between independent and assisted performance
    • Interaction with peers and teachers is an effective way of developing skills and strategies
  • Child within ZPD needs a boost

bruner 1960
Bruner 1960
  • Published The Process of Education
  • Direct impact on US teaching curriculum
    • Previous policy found important material too “difficult”
  • Four key themes arose
    • Structured learning
    • Readiness for learning (spiral curriculum)
    • Intuitive and analytic thinking
    • Motives for learning

bruner 1966
Bruner 1966
  • Developed Modes of Representation
  • Researched cognitive development of children
  • Enactive (0-1 years)
    • Action based
  • Iconic (1-6 years)
    • Images assist memory
  • Symbolic (7+ years)
    • Language encoded
piaget 1970
PIAGET 1970*

Stages of Development

  • Sensorimotor- object permanence
  • Preoperational- egocentrism
  • Concrete Operational- conservation
  • Formal Operational- manipulate ideas in head, e.g. abstract reasoning
works cited
Works cited

Field, Richard. (2005). ‘John Dewey.’ March 16, 2013.

‘Maria Montessori, MD.’ March 16, 2013.

McLeod, S. A. (2007). ‘Vygotsky’. March 24, 2013

McLeod, S. A. (2008). ‘Bruner - Learning Theory in Education.’ March 24, 2013. http://

McLeod, S. A. (2009). “Jean Piaget | Cognitive Theory.” March 14, 2013.

“Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Devlopment.” March 25, 2013.

Presnell, Faith. “Jean Piaget.” March 16, 2013.

Smith, M.K. (2002). 'Jerome S. Bruner and the process of education.’ March 24, 2013.