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Animal Structure and Function: An Introduction

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Animal Structure and Function: An Introduction

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  1. Animal Structure and Function: An Introduction Chapter 38

  2. KEY CONCEPTS • Structure and function are closely linked at every level of organization

  3. Learning Objective 1 • Compare the structure and function of the four main kinds of animal tissues: epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous

  4. Tissue • A group of similarly specialized cells • Associated to perform one or more functions

  5. Epithelial Tissue(Epithelium) • A continuous layer (sheet) of cells • covering a body surface • lining a body cavity • Functions in protection, absorption, secretion, or sensation

  6. Connective Tissue 1 • Relatively few cells separated by intercellular substance • fibers scattered throughout a matrix • Intercellular substance fibers • collagen fibers • elastic fibers • reticular fibers

  7. Connective Tissue 2 • Contains specialized cells • such as fibroblasts and macrophages • Functions: • joins other body tissues • supports body and organs • protects underlying organs

  8. Muscle Tissue • Consists of cells specialized to contract • Each cell is an elongated muscle fiber • many contractile units (myofibrils)

  9. Nervous Tissue • Neurons • elongated cells • specialized for transmitting impulses • Glial cells • support and nourish neurons

  10. Learning Objective 2 • Compare the structure and function of the main types of epithelial tissue

  11. Epithelial Tissue • Epithelial cell shapes • squamous, cuboidal, columnar • Epithelial tissue structure • simple, stratified, pseudostratified • (See Table 38-1)

  12. Simple Squamous Epithelium • Lines blood vessels and air sacs in lungs • Permits exchange of materials by diffusion

  13. Simple Cuboidal and Columnar Epithelia • Line passageways • Specialized for secretion and absorption

  14. Stratified Squamous Epithelium • Forms outer layer of skin • Lines passageways into the body • Provides protection

  15. Pseudostratified Epithelium • Lines passageways • Protects underlying tissues

  16. Glands 1 • Specialized epithelial tissue • Goblet cells • unicellular exocrine glands that secrete mucus

  17. Glands 2 • Exocrine glands • secrete product through a duct onto exposed epithelial surface • Endocrine glands • release hormones into interstitial fluid or blood

  18. Glands

  19. Unicellular glands (goblet cells) Cilia Basement membrane (a) Goblet cells. Skin (c) Parotid salivary gland. (b) Sweat gland. Fig. 38-1, p. 809

  20. Membranes • Epithelial membrane • sheet of epithelial tissue • layer of underlying connective tissue • Mucous membrane • lines cavity that opens to outside of body • Serous membrane • lines cavity that does not open to the outside

  21. Learning Objective 3 • Compare the main types of connective tissue • Summarize their functions

  22. Connective Tissues • Cells embedded in intercellular substance • microscopic collagenfibers, elastic fibers, reticular fibers (thin branched fibers) • scattered through a matrix (thin gel of polysaccharides)

  23. Loose Connective Tissue • Consists of fibers running in various directions through a semifluid matrix • Flexible tissue forms a covering for nerves, blood vessels, and muscles

  24. Dense Connective Tissue • Stronger, less flexible than loose connective tissue • Collagen fibers arranged in definite pattern • Forms • tendons (connect muscles to bones) • ligaments (connect bones to bones)

  25. Dense Connective Tissue

  26. Elastic Connective Tissue • Consists of bundles of parallel elastic fibers • Found in lung tissue, walls of large arteries

  27. Reticular Connective Tissue • Consists of interlacing reticular fibers • Forms support framework for many organs

  28. Adipose Tissue • Consists of fat cells • Found with loose connective tissue in subcutaneous tissue

  29. Cartilage and Bone • Form skeletons of vertebrates • Cartilage consists of chondrocytes • in lacunae (small cavities in hard matrix) • nonvascular • Osteocytes • secrete and maintain bone matrix • vascular

  30. Cartilage and Bone • Cartilage • Bone

  31. Bone

  32. (a) The human skeleton consists mainly of bone. (b) A bone is cut open, exposing its internal structure. Fig. 38-2ab, p. 814

  33. BloodandLymph • Circulating tissues • fluid intercellular substances • Help parts of an animal communicate with one another

  34. Learning Objective 4 • Contrast the three types of muscle tissue and their functions

  35. Skeletal Muscle • Striated and under voluntary control • Elongated, cylindrical fibers with several nuclei • Skeletal muscles contract, move parts of the body

  36. Cardiac Muscle • Striated, contractions are involuntary • Elongated, cylindrical fibers branch and fuse; one or two central nuclei • Muscle contracts, heart pumps blood

  37. Smooth Muscle • No striations, contractions involuntary • Elongated, spindle-shaped fibers with a single central nucleus • Smooth muscle moves body organs (example: pushes food through digestive tract)

  38. Muscle Tissues

  39. Learning Objective 5 • How does the structure of the neuron relate to its function?

  40. Neuron • Elongated cell • Receives and transmits information • Synapse • a junction between neurons

  41. Neuron • Dendrites • receive signals • transmit signals to cell body • Axon • transmits signals away from cell body • to other neurons, muscles, glands

  42. Neuron

  43. Neurons Dendrite Nuclei of glial cells Axon 100 µm Fig. 38-3, p. 817

  44. KEY CONCEPTS • The main types of tissues in a complex animal are epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous

  45. Learning Objective 6 • Describe the organ systems of a mammal • Summarize the homeostatic actions of each organ system

  46. Organ Systems • Tissues and organs working together • In mammals, 11 organ systems work together in the organism • Each organ system functions to maintain homeostasis

  47. 11 Organ Systems Integumentary Respiratory Skeletal Urinary Muscular Nervous Digestive Endocrine Cardiovascular Reproductive Immune (lymphatic)

  48. 11Organ Systems

  49. 11Organ Systems

  50. Insert “Human organ systems” organ_systems_v2.swf