Musical Investigation. Due Next Week. Romantic Era. A Comparison of Classical and Romantic Styles. The Art Song The Lied (Lieder = plural) is a German-texted solo vocal song with piano accompaniment. Influenced by Romantic lyric poetry Song Cycle
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Due Next Week
The Lied (Lieder = plural) is a German-texted solo vocal song with piano accompaniment.
Influenced by Romantic lyric poetry
Groups of Lieder that were unified by a narrative thread or theme.
The same melody is repeated with every stanza
Proceeds from beginning to end without repetitions of whole sections – the music follows the story line.
Modified strophic form
The same melody may be repeated for two or three stanzas, with new material introduce when the poem requires it
Fisherman tries to catch a trout from a stream
Schubert’s Trout Quintet
Erlking: Through-composed Lied
“In the lovely month of May” from A Poet’s Love (Dichterliebe), No. 1: a Lied from a song cycle
and the modern piano style
His entire creative life revolved around the piano.
His style was his own
Tempo rubato – borrowed time
Polonaise in A major, Op. 40, No. 1 (Military)
Prelude in E minor, Op. 28, No. 4
Symphonic poem – a one movement orchestral work with a literary or pictorial program.
Thematic transformation - Based his music on the technique of thematic transformation by varying the melodic outline, harmony or rhythm of a theme.
The Little Bell (La campanella)
a German musician, one of the leading pianists of the Romantic era, as well as a composer, and wife of composer Robert Schumann.
Nocturne, from Music for an Evening Entertainment (Soirees musicales), Op. 6
Program symphony – 5 movements
A lovesick musician in an opium trance is haunted by a vision of his beloved, which becomes an idée fixe.
The symphony’s recurrent theme, called an idée fixe (fixed idea), symbolizes the beloved.
Reveries, Passions – The musician remembers the yearning he knew before meeting his beloved. Then the volcanic love with which she inspired him.
A Ball – At a ball he glimpses the loved one again.
Scene in the Fields – In the country he hears two shepherds piping. She appears again.
March to the Scaffold – He dreams he has killed his beloved, that he has been condemned to die and is being led to the scaffold
Dream of a Witches’ Sabbath – He is surrounded by spirits who have gathered for his funeral. She comes to the funeral.
4th movement – March to the Scaffold
0:00 – opening motive (rhythm of theme B)
0:24 – theme A, downward minor scale
1:31 – theme B – march tune
1:56 – development
theme B in brass
theme A soft with pizz strings
theme B brass
theme A pizz strings, then brass
3:02 – Theme A full orch, then inverted
4:05 – Idée fixe in clarinet (a last thought of love) followed by a loud chord (the fall of the blade)
5th movement – Dream of a Witches’ Sabbath
0:00 – Larghetto, chromatic scales in strings
1:27 – Allegro, fixed idea in clarinet w/ trills and grace notes
1:35 – Orchestra fortissimo = howls of joy at beloved’s arrival
1:46 – fixed idea continues in woodwinds
2:53 – Bells toll for the dead
3:19 – Chant tune Dies irae in bassoons and tubas, then twice as fast in brass
3:49 – Altered Dies irae in strings
5:08 – “Dance of the Witches” (Rounde du Sabbat”) beings in low strings, fugal setting
7:56 – “The dance and the Dies irae combined”
(Czech Republic was called Bohemia)
Symphonic poem, from cycle My Country
Program: Scenes along the river Moldau in Bohemia
Czech – Dvorak, Smetana
England – Elgar, Ralph Vaughan Williams
Scandinavia – Grieg, Sibelius
Russia – Borodin, Musorgsky, Korsakov, Tchaikovsky
Spain – Albeniz, de Falla