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Memory Test Definitions. Define Tone ( as it pertains to writing). Tone is the writer ’ s attitude toward his or her subject matter . Formal writing at the college level usually falls into two main categories:. Objectivity. Subjectivity. impartial. partial. unbiased. biased.

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slide2

Define Tone ( as it pertains to writing)

  • Tone is the writer’s attitude toward his or her
  • subject matter. Formal writing at the college level
  • usually falls into two main categories:

Objectivity

Subjectivity

impartial

partial

unbiased

biased

involved

detached

partisan

neutral

news story

editorial

reportorial

evaluative

slide3

Objective tone

Recent military plans by the current administration

have been put on hold because of an apparent breakthrough

in discussions between Russia and Syria, which would involve

the latter government’s commitment to surrendering its

cache of chemical weapons and have them monitored by

an international organization--most likely the O.P.W.C.--and

eventually destroyed.

slide4

Subjective tone

Although the current administration’s military plans

have been put on hold because of an apparent breakthrough

in discussions between Russia and Syria, which would involve

the latter government’s commitment to surrendering its

cache of chemical weapons and have them monitored by

an international organization--most likely the O.P.C.W.--and

eventually destroyed, the President and his aides should be

extremely cautious because Syria is in the middle of a two

year old civil war, and a UN study has predicted that it would take

75,000 troops to protect the inspectors; this could lead to more

entanglement in a region that is completely chaotic.

slide5

Define Qualification

Qualification is the tempering of broad statements to make

them more exact.

slide6

Define Coherence

Coherence is the quality of good writing that results

when all parts are logically related. Coherence means the

writer has to effect clear transitions.

Parts:

Words within sentences

Sentences within paragraphs

Paragraphs within an essay

slide7

Which paragraph is coherent, ordered, and focused?

When I first brought my cat home from the Humane Society, she

was a mangy, pitiful animal. It cost a lot to adopt her: forty dollars.

And then I had to buy litter, a litter box, food, and dishes for her to eat from.

Two days after she came home with me she got picked up by the pound’s

animal warden. There's a leash law for cats in Fort Collins. If they're not

in a yard they have to be on a leash. Anyway, my cat is my best

friend. I'm glad I got her. She sleeps under the covers with me when

it's cold. Sometimes she meows a lot in the middle of the night and wakes me

up, though.

When I first brought my cat home from the Humane Society, she was a mangy,

pitiful animal. She was so thin that you could count her vertebrae just by

looking at her. Apparently she was declawed by her previous owners, then

abandoned or lost. Since she couldn't hunt, she nearly starved. Not only

that, but she had an abscess on one hip. The vets at the Humane Society

had drained it, but it was still scabby and without fur. She had a terrible

cold, too. She was sneezing and sniffling and her meow was just a hoarse

squeak. And she'd lost half her tail somewhere. Instead of

tapering gracefully, it had a bony knob at the end.

slide8

Define Refutation

Refutation occurs when a writer of an argumentative essay

presents one or several points from the opposing side and

then immediately follows with information that points to the

weakness of its position or positions. Discrediting the opposition,

if handled appropriately with engaging evidence, often

strengthens a writer’s position.

More on refutation

slide9

Define a phrase: mention at least three of the six types

A phrase is a group of related words without a subject

And a predicate; each of which has its own function in

a sentence: either adjective, adverb, or noun.

prepositional, gerund, absolute

slide10

Define plagiarism

Plagiarism occurs when a writer borrows information

from a source, either directly or indirectly, but does not

give proper credit to the author or does not

paraphrase correctly.

English Department Policy on Plagiarism

slide11

Define the difference between objective and subjective

description

With objective description, a writer will detail an item

without ever bringing in his or her opinion about it.

With subjective description, just the opposite, a writer

will paint a picture of the item, detailing it with his or her

personal feelings. Objective description uses denotative

language; subjective description uses connotative.

slide12

Define biased and sexist language

Generally speaking, avoid stereotyping.

It is language that relies on stereotypes that demean,

ignore, or patronize people on the basis of gender, race,

religion, national origin, ethnicity, physical ability, sex,

age, or any other human condition.

slide13

Stereotypical Language

After the nursing student graduates, she must face a difficult state board examination. [Not all nursing students are women.]

Running for city council are Jake Stein, an attorney, and Mrs. Cynthia Jones, a professor of English and mother of three. [The title Mrs. and the phrase mother of three are irrelevant.]

Wives of senior government officials are required to report any gifts they receive that are valued at more than $100. [Not all senior government officials are men.]

slide15

Define an effective thesis statement

It is the central idea of an opinionated piece of writing, which

gives the reader the direction and purpose and sometimes the

divisions of the major proposition. It controls the entire essay.

slide16

Example:

The concept of "traditional marriage" being defined as one

man and one woman is historically inaccurate.

Given the prevalence of modern and ancient examples

of family arrangements based on polygamy, communal

child-rearing, the use of concubines and mistresses and

the commonality of prostitution, heterosexual monogamy

can be considered "unnatural” in evolutionary terms;

consequently, same-sex couples should be allowed to

publicly celebrate their commitment in the same way

as heterosexual couples.

slide17

Define Dependent Clause

A dependent clause , often called a subordinate clause, is

a group of related words with a subject and a predicate,

but it can never stand alone as a sentence because it begins

with either a subordinating conjunction or a relative pronoun.

It can function as an adjective, an adverb, or a noun.

When

the students asked for a definition of dependent clause.

Whenthe students asked for a definition of dependent clause,

the professor showed them a PowerPoint slide.

Adv.

The students asked for a definition of dependent clause;

the professor, whowas receptive, showed them a PowerPoint

slide.

Adj.

The students asked for a definition of dependent clause;

the professor showed them what it was on a PowerPoint slide.

N.

slide18

Define In-Text Citation

An in-text citation gives the reader of a documented essay

the specific information, within parentheses, needed to

designate the source of the quoted material. It follows the

quoted text—direct or indirect—and the final punctuation

Is placed after the parentheses .

The famous author said, “anger is an acid that can do more

harm to the vessel in which it is stored than to anything on which

it is poured” (Twain 25).

complex sentence

The famous author cautions us about the deleterious

effects of vexation, both kept in or released on others (Twain 25).

simple sentence

slide19

Define Dangling Modifier: then give an example

A dangling modifier, often a participial expression, does

not logically connect to what it modifies.

Rounding the corner too quickly, the light post was sheared

off by the school bus.

Driving down the hill, the elk ran in front of us.

I was able to see my sister’s new Lexus peeking through the

window.

I saw a ripe apple on the counter, which I ate.

Adjectival clause

slide20

List four types of evidence a writer may use to support

an assertion

  • Examples
  • Facts
  • Statistics
  • Expert opinion (books, articles, reports, interviews)

5. Personal observations and experiences

slide21

Define a Fragment

A fragment is a group of related words that begin with

a capital letter and end with a final mark of punctuation

but can never stand alone as a sentence because it is

either a phrase, the second half of a compound predicate,

or a dependent clause. It is one of three very common errors.

slide22

Define a Comma Splice and Run-on sentence

A comma splice occurs when a writer places just a

comma between two independent clauses.

A run-on sentence occurs when a writer places nothing

between two independent clauses

Two more of the three very common errors.