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Clinical Surveillance. Clinical Monitoring Utilizing Meditech. Muse International Conference May 2009. Definition. clin·i·cal Pronunciation: \ ˈ kli-ni-kəl\ Function: adjective

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Clinical surveillance l.jpg

Clinical Surveillance

Clinical Monitoring Utilizing Meditech

Muse International Conference

May 2009


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Definition

clin·i·cal

  • Pronunciation:

    • \ˈkli-ni-kəl\

  • Function:

    • adjective

  • 1: of, relating to, or conducted in or as if in a clinic: as a: involving direct observation of the patient b: based on or characterized by observable and diagnosable symptoms


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Definition

sur·veil·lance

  • Pronunciation:

    • \sər-ˈvā-lən(t)s also -ˈvāl-yən(t)s or -ˈvā-ən(t)s\

  • Function:

    • noun

  • Etymology:

    • French, from surveiller to watch over, from sur- + veiller to watch, from Old French veillier, from Latin vigilare, from vigil watchful — more at vigil

    • close watch kept over someone or something (as by a detective)


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Today’s Goal

To expand our understanding allowing the system to assist in routine surveillance opportunities by imbedding knowledge within rules and dictionary selections.


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Surveillance Needs

  • What are you doing now?

  • What else should you be doing?


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Surveillance

  • Determine what needs to be “watched”

  • Establish Surveillance Opportunities

  • Understand the clinical parameters

  • Evaluate the system’s ability to capture and relay data

  • Batch vs. Real-time surveillance –(levels of sophistication)


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Surveillance Opportunities

  • Patient Demographics

  • Renal Dosing

  • A.D.E. / Black Box Warning Monitoring

  • IV to PO Conversion

  • Drug Disease Interactions

  • Non-Pharmacy Opportunities


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Clinical Parameters (sample triggers)


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Methodology

The system contains patient specific data.

The Clinician works with specific triggers of evidence.

By embedding the triggers into the system it can provide surveillance to streamline the clinician processes


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Understanding

  By utilizing sophisticated clinical rules and reports to identify potential drug problems, monitor laboratory values and alert the clinician to potential patient risks.  You can leverage your current Meditech system to protect patients against potential adverse events.


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Information "KNOWLEDGE" Capture and Storage

Queries >>>>>> CDS


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Tools for embedding"KNOWLEDGE"

Customer Defined Screens

  • Pharmacy

  • Admissions

  • Nursing (NUR – PCS)

  • ITS - Radiology

  • Other modules


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Adding Sophistication

  • Utilizing Rules linked to fields on a Customer Defined Screen (CDS).

  • Activating rules by selecting appropriate fields on the CDS.



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Medication ScreenCDS

  • PHA DRUG type screen

  • Medication Specific Information

  • Attached in PHA parameters

  • Same for all formulary items


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Possibilities

  • Protocol - dosage calcs

  • Do Not Crush - Do Not Shake

  • Drug classification - chemo, contrast, blood

  • Rx label information - MCD

  • MAR warnings

  • Nursing documentation prompts

  • Triggers for invoking global rules


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Possibilities

  • Protocol - dosage calcs

  • Do Not Crush - Do Not Shake

  • Drug classification - chemo, contrast, blood

  • Rx label information - MCD

  • MAR warnings

  • Nursing documentation prompts

  • Triggers for invoking global rules


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Rx Screen

  • PHA RX type screen

  • Rx specific information

  • Attached in Order Type dictionary

  • Same for all orders of that Type

  • Entered as Rx queries


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Possibilities

  • Lot numbers

  • Expiration dates

  • Used with transaction rules can send information to B/AR

  • Unique information

  • “Key” for rule line check or display


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Possibilities

  • Lot numbers

  • Expiration dates

  • Used with transaction rules can send information to B/AR

  • Unique information

  • “Key” for rule line check or display


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Surveying for Missing Information

  • Report to list patients that need to have their demographics completed.

    (Batch Process – requires manual intervention)

  • Rule to warn users or prevent users from proceeding if key data has not been entered for a given patient.

    (System Process – no intervention needed)



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Allergy Check Rules

  • Rules can be incorporated into system to warn users or prevent users from proceeding if key data has not been entered for a given patient.

    • Pharmacy Rule – this rule is a global rule and can be linked or removed from the pharmacy CDP. It will be invoked when no allergy is entered and the user attempts to enter a pharmacy order.

    • OE Rule - this rule must be incorporated into any existing category in the category dictionary, and should be attached to a common category such as DIET. It will be invoked when no allergy is entered and the user attempts to place an order in that category.

  • (Allergy rules can be built as warnings or errors based on your preference)



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Pro-active and Continuous Surveillance

  • Patients with impaired renal function must have their drug therapy carefully monitored to avoid adverse drug events.

  • Dose the patient properly – Pro-active Surveillance

  • Monitor the patient for any adverse response – Continuous Surveillance


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Pro-active Surveillance(example)

  • Medication Rule provides the end user with an estimated creatinine clearance for appropriate patients (site determined age and CRCL parameters) when entering drugs that may have an impact on renal compromised patients. The display includes not only the estimated creatinine clearance but also all the demographic information utilized in the calculation and a trend of the serum creatinine levels with specimen dates and times. Further utilization of the customer defined screens within the pharmacy module provides a suggested dose for the medication based on the calculated creatinine clearance.



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Page 2 – with data

Clinical Evidence transfer from Clinician to System




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Audit Trails

Utilizing dose comments provides an excellent audit trail of rule messages



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Continuous Surveillance(possibilities)

  • Refill Rule continues to monitor patients creatinine clearance and displays on refill list when the value changes significantly


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Refill Lists

  • Refill rules are applied to both Unit Dose Refill Lists and IV Refill Lists.

  • The PREVIEW refill list can be used when monitoring patients for rule messages.

  • Two additional refill list custom formats may need to be created named “RULE” and “NORULE”.

  • These custom refill list formats could be selected for the appropriate refill list to be run. After filling in all the appropriate information, at the Alternate List Format, the user can hit <F9> lookup and select one the refill list custom formats.



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Sample CrCl Refill Rule Display

Criteria should be incorporated into the rule so it will only display when the results of the serum creatinine or creatinine clearance have changed by a user defined (significant) amount (only display things you want to see!)


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ADE Monitoring

  • Medications can be classified on the Drug CDS as those causing specific ADE’s. Multiple ADE’s can be associated with a single formulary item.

  • A Rule is created for each potential ADE.

  • By answering “Y” to the ADE query “Potential ADE (Y/N)” and associating the appropriate ADE’s at the “ADE:” prompt, these refill rules will be invoked and display on the refill list.


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ADE Monitoring

Clinical Evidence transfer from Clinician to System - Triggers

  • Medications can be classified on the Drug CDS as those causing specific ADE’s. Multiple ADE’s can be associated with a single formulary item.

  • A Rule is created for each potential ADE.

  • By answering “Y” to the ADE query “Potential ADE (Y/N)” and associating the appropriate ADE’s at the “ADE:” prompt, these refill rules will be invoked and display on the refill list.


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ADE Monitoring

Clinical Evidence transfer from Clinician to System - Triggers

  • Medications can be classified on the Drug CDS as those causing specific ADE’s. Multiple ADE’s can be associated with a single formulary item.

  • A Rule is created for each potential ADE.

  • By answering “Y” to the ADE query “Potential ADE (Y/N)” and associating the appropriate ADE’s at the “ADE:” prompt, these refill rules will be invoked and display on the refill list.

Using a CDS Query to invoke a Global Rule


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By answering “Y” to the ADE query “Potential ADE (Y/N)” and associating the appropriate ADE’s at the “ADE:” prompt, these refill rules can be invoked and display on the refill list

Multiple ADE responses can be entered for a specific formulary item


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Sample Refill Rule for a Potential ADE (Y/N)” and associating the appropriate ADE’s at the “ADE:” prompt, these refill rules can be invoked and display on the refill list


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ADE Monitoring (Y/N)” and associating the appropriate ADE’s at the “ADE:” prompt, these refill rules can be invoked and display on the refill list

  • Global rules will indicate a potential ADE and the order that may be causing the adverse effect.


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Potential ADE Refill List Display (Y/N)” and associating the appropriate ADE’s at the “ADE:” prompt, these refill rules can be invoked and display on the refill list


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Sample ADE Rule (Y/N)” and associating the appropriate ADE’s at the “ADE:” prompt, these refill rules can be invoked and display on the refill list

; This rule will display patient with cyclosporine > 500 receiving cyclosporine drug

;

[f rx med]^M,

"PHA.ADEGRP"^GRP,

"CYCLOSPRNE"^CDS,

IF{[f z.get.cds.resp](M,GRP,CDS) ""^RES,

[f rx nth ver Res-RES]("CYCL1",1)^RES,

RES#”1,”^RESDT,RES#”2,”^RESTM,RES#"0,"^RES,

IF{RES>500 "Potential ADE, cyclosporine serum level = "^MSG,

MSG_RES_” on “_RESDT_” @ “_RESTM^MSG,

Q(MSG,RESDT,RESTM);[f rx reject]};

[f rx reject]};


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Sample Custom Keyword (Y/N)” and associating the appropriate ADE’s at the “ADE:” prompt, these refill rules can be invoked and display on the refill list

z.get.cds.resp

%PHA.RX.zcus.tig.npr.rx.rules.M.get.resp(

; This program will get the ADE group Response from the formulary Dictionary

; A - Med

; B - Query

; C - Response to check for

;

A^PHA.DRUG.mnemonic,

B^PHA.DRUG.query,

""^PHA.DRUG.query.mult.q^FND,

DO{@Next(PHA.DRUG.query.mult.q)&'FND IF{@PHA.DRUG.query.mult.resp=C 1^FND}},

FND;


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Added Sophistication (Y/N)” and associating the appropriate ADE’s at the “ADE:” prompt, these refill rules can be invoked and display on the refill list

  • Create an NPR Report printed to the screen that promotes the ability to provide real-time intervention on patients when time may be of the essence.


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Real-time Clinical Surveillance Display (Y/N)” and associating the appropriate ADE’s at the “ADE:” prompt, these refill rules can be invoked and display on the refill list


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Right Arrow for Detail of Order (Y/N)” and associating the appropriate ADE’s at the “ADE:” prompt, these refill rules can be invoked and display on the refill list


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IV to PO Conversion (Y/N)” and associating the appropriate ADE’s at the “ADE:” prompt, these refill rules can be invoked and display on the refill list

  • Fields can be added to the Drug CDS.

  • The first field identifies if the medication can be converted to a PO medication.

  • The second field will define the dose of the oral form that is equivalent to the IV form.

  • The global refill rule provides the following information. For patients with active orders for the medications identified that can be converted to PO. It searches through the active orders of the patient for any other active orders for oral dosage forms that have a schedule of SCH. If that is the case the rule will display a message that the patient is receiving an IV medication that may be suitable for a specific PO substitution.


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IV to PO Conversion Set-Up (Y/N)” and associating the appropriate ADE’s at the “ADE:” prompt, these refill rules can be invoked and display on the refill list

Answering “Y” to this field identifies if the medication can be converted to PO.

Oral Equivalent information to display can be entered here


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IV to PO Conversion Refill Rule Display (Y/N)” and associating the appropriate ADE’s at the “ADE:” prompt, these refill rules can be invoked and display on the refill list


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IV to PO Real-time Clinical Surveillance Display Sample (Y/N)” and associating the appropriate ADE’s at the “ADE:” prompt, these refill rules can be invoked and display on the refill list


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Additional Sophistication (Y/N)” and associating the appropriate ADE’s at the “ADE:” prompt, these refill rules can be invoked and display on the refill list

  • If after reviewing an IV order, if it is determined that the IV should continue, an additional field can be added to the order type CDS to remove the rule message from displaying on the refill list or real-time display.


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Order Type CDS (Y/N)” and associating the appropriate ADE’s at the “ADE:” prompt, these refill rules can be invoked and display on the refill list

An Additional field can be added to the order type CDS. The CDS is attached in the Order Type dictionary


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Sample Order Type CDS (Y/N)” and associating the appropriate ADE’s at the “ADE:” prompt, these refill rules can be invoked and display on the refill list

By utilizing the limited edit function and answering “Y” to the query “IVPO Reviewed by Pharmacist (Y/N):” the message will no longer display for this order on the refill list.


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Review (Y/N)” and associating the appropriate ADE’s at the “ADE:” prompt, these refill rules can be invoked and display on the refill list


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Questions / Discussion (Y/N)” and associating the appropriate ADE’s at the “ADE:” prompt, these refill rules can be invoked and display on the refill list


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Contact Information (Y/N)” and associating the appropriate ADE’s at the “ADE:” prompt, these refill rules can be invoked and display on the refill list

http://www.theingroup.com

[email protected]


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