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Internet Browsing & Surfing. The Internet. What is the Internet?. Before we Know about internet we must know that what is the Network . A computer Network is a connection of two or more computers to share data & resources. What is the Internet?.

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What is the internet
What is the Internet?

Before we Know about internet we must know that what is the Network.

A computer Network is a connection of two or more computers to share data & resources.

What is the internet1
What is the Internet?

The Internet is the largest electronic network. A global network of networks. The Internet also referred to as the Net, Information Superhighway, or Cyberspace.

Why internet
Why Internet?

  • To find information (Browsing & Searching)

  • To send and receive e-mail (yahoo, hotmail, gmail)

  • To communicate with other people (instant messaging i.e. Chat)

Why internet1
Why Internet?

  • To distance learning (online lectures)

  • To market product & services (web-hosting & advertisements)

  • To shop (e-shoping)

History of the internet
History of the Internet?

The Internet as we know it today begins around 1969 with ARPANet, a network created by the Department of Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. Originally connecting four universities, the network allows scientists across the country to share information and resources through their computers, which are about the size of a refrigerator. Through the 70’s and 80’s more universities connect their computers to ARPANet.

History of the internet1
History of the Internet?

In 1985, the National Science Foundation (NSF) establishes 6 super computing sites in the U.S, which create the NSFNET backbone.

ARPANet dissolves in 1990, but the NSFNET backbone continues to grow in size and speed,

becoming network of networks, known today as the Internet.

In 1993, the World Wide Web (www) was born. The world-wide-web revolutionized the way people accessed information on the Internet.

History of the internet2
History of the Internet?

Using hypertext markup language (HTML), people could link documents together, even documents on different computers, so long as the computers were connected to the Internet. Additionally, the documents were not required to be text-based files, but could also be image, sound, or video files. When information (text, image, sound, video, or a combination of these) is combined into a single document, we call it a web page. Web pages require the use of web browser software that interprets the page’s HTML and displays the information on the screen.

How to get connected to the internet
How to Get Connectedto the Internet?

The basic requirements are:-

  • A Computer

  • A Modem

  • A Phone Line

  • A Contract With ISP

How to open internet pages websites
How to Open InternetPages (Websites)?

A software called Internet Browser is required to open websites. Here is a list of commonly used Internet Browsers :-

Http www sti gov pk
Http:// ?

  • pk (Represents the Country)

  • gov (Government Organization

  • sti (Domain Name/Name of Organization)

  • www (World Wide Web)

  • Http (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol)

How to search the internet
How to Search the Internet?

To search Internet a search engine is required. Here are some commonly used search engines:-







Internet search techniques
Internet Search Techniques

Finding information on the Internet that is relevant, useful, current and credible can be challenging.

Information on the Internet is:

  • Decentralized - thousands of networks are involved

  • Disorganized - no central index or database exists

  • Dynamic - changing every minute of every day

  • Expanding rapidly

  • Not subject to traditional pre-publication checks and balances

  • Not always authentic or accurate

  • Not always predictable - resources can disappear or change suddenly

Effective searching can allow us to
Effective searching can allow us to

  • Find the materials we want amongst the huge number of online resources available

    • Google claims it searches >3 billion web pages

    • More than 20,000 full text journals are online

    • Newspapers, databases, books, company web pages, dictionaries, encyclopaedias, individual home pages, etc, are also online

  • Make efficient use of limited access to PCs and bandwidth

  • Save time and money

Planning a search strategy
Planning a search strategy

  • Define your information need

  • Decide which sources to use

  • Find out how they function

  • Run your search

  • Review and refine you search


  • Never use phrases if you are looking for some topic or subject

  • Use complete phrases only when you are looking for the exact phrase

  • Break your concept in key concepts or terms

  • Before starting searching think (WWH) what, where and How

  • It will save your time and bandwidth

Define your information need
Define your information need

  • Careful choice of search term(s) is vital

    • What key words do you think will appear on the site/article you want?

    • What are key concepts: Is it a part of or related to ?

    • Are there any synonyms for these keywords or concepts?

    • Are there any alternative spellings for your keywords/concepts

    • Are plurals or capitalisation involved?

I want to find information about the health implications of water pollution
I want to find information about the health implications of water pollution

Keywords: ’water’ ‘pollution’ ‘health’

Concepts: ‘environmental degradation’ or ‘agricultural management’ or ‘health’


  • rivers, lakes, sea, coastal, ’domestic water’, etc

  • ‘oil spills’, chemical, biological, etc

    Plurals: river(s), lake(s), disease(s)

    Capitals: maybe the name of a specific lake, disease, region

Tips for searching the web
Tips for Searching the Web   water pollution

  • Be Natural 

    Type in what you want to know, rather than a list of synonyms. Websites are written in flowing language, and search engines are being taught to understand the same.

  • Use Rare Words

    The more unusual or uncommon the keywords you use are, the more specific the results will be. Taking a moment to think of a valid yet uncommon word is a valuable technique.Note: For few engines the word order is important, so always enter the rare word first.

  • Most Important Word First 

    From experiences with Google, it has been found that putting the word that is most important to your search in first, gets slightly better results.

Tips for searching the web1
Tips for Searching the Web water pollution

  • Spell It Right 

  • Reverse Questions 

    Search engines look for pieces of text that match your query. Web pages are more likely to contain answers than questions - so search for the answer. Phrase your query how you would expect the answer to read - the difference appears slight, but it makes a huge difference.For Example:

    • “IRS stands for" rather than "What does IRS stand for?“

    • "man first landed on the moon in" rather than "When did man first land on the moon?“

    • "sky is blue because" instead of "Why is the sky blue?"

Internet search techniques1
Internet Search Techniques water pollution

Searching by Keyword

  • The user enters keywords in a query box and requests a search.

  • The search tool attempts to match the keywords with entries in its database then returns a "hit list" of sites related to the keywords. The sites in the hit list are usually ranked by relevance with the best matches at the top of the list. The information for each site includes a link to the particular internet resource and in many cases a brief abstract of the site.

  • The user selects appropriate sites from the hit list and reviews the pages to find the information required. The keyword searching method is often used for narrow, specific searches.

Internet search techniques2
Internet Search Techniques water pollution

Searching by Keyword


Hit List

Site 1 - link and description Site 2 - link and descriptionSite 3 - link and descriptionetc.

Harry Potter


How search engines work
How Search Engines Work water pollution

  • Electronic search engines may interpret your search terms using

    • Boolean operators

    • Phrase and proximity searching

    • Truncation or wildcard functions

    • Case sensitivity

    • Fields

    • Stop words

    • Relevance sorting

Boolean operators
Boolean Operators water pollution

  • Use Boolean Phrases

    Perhaps the most useful feature in defining search criteria, Boolean operators provide you with powerful control over search engine logic

    • AND

      If you want a document that contains all of your keywords, use the capitalized word AND between keywords. The engine will only find documents that have both words.

    • OR

      If you want to broaden your search to find documents that contain either of the keywords, use the OR operator between words. This is very useful when searching for terms that have synonyms.

      For Example: children OR kids, which would return any document that had either of the words.

    • NOT or AND NOT

      Using the capitalized AND NOT preceding a search term eliminates documents that contain that term

Internet browsing surfing

education water pollution


Query: I'm interested in the relationship between education and literacy

Internet browsing surfing

education water pollution


Query: I would like information about education or literacy

Internet browsing surfing

education water pollution


Query: I want to see information about education, but I want to avoid seeing anything about secondary

Internet search techniques3
Internet Search Techniques water pollution

AND Operator

  • Include resources that contain all keywords

  • Used to narrow or tighten a search


  • OR Operator

  • Include resources that contain either or both keywords

  • Used to broaden a search

  • Example:

music AND "George Harrison"

"John Lennon" OR "George Harrison"

Internet search techniques4
Internet Search Techniques water pollution

Searching by Boolean Search Operators

  • NOT Operator

  • Excluderesources that contain the keyword

  • Used to narrow a search

  • Example:

Beatles NOT "Ringo Starr"

Phrase and proximity searching
Phrase and proximity searching water pollution

  • Using quotation marks allows you to search for an exact phrase, e.g. “information literacy”

  • NEAR ensures that the document contains both terms and that they are located near each other in the document.

Truncation or wildcard searches
Truncation or wildcard searches water pollution

  • Truncation: place a symbol at the end of the word so you search for variant endings of that word

    • e.g. litera$ would look for literature, literacy, literal

  • Wildcards: place a symbol within a word to find variations on it

    • e.g. analy*e would find analyse or analyze

Other variations in search tools
Other variations in search tools water pollution

  • Case sensitivity: use of upper or lower case in search terms

  • Fields: searches in fields such as the title, URL or links

  • Stop words: searches may ignore common words such as ‘and’, ‘if’, ‘an’, ‘the’

Parentheses water pollution

Parentheses are used in Boolean logic similar to the way they are used in a mathematical equation, limiting and ordering relations between variables.

For Example:

If you want to find a Web-based Internet tutorial you might use the search criteria

Internet AND (tutorial OR lesson).

The documents returned must contain both of the words Internet and tutorial or Internet and lesson.

Parentheses water pollution

flower AND(rose OR Jasmine)

music AND Beatles NOT ("John Lennon" OR "Ringo Starr")

Text operators in the search
Text Operators in the Search water pollution

  • Include Type (+) before the term to include in results. Plus sign is usually not used because it is understood

  • Exclude Type (-) before the term to exclude from results

  • Synonym Type (~) before the term to find the word and synonyms

    e.g.large~big to return results including large, big, great and huge

  • Num-range Use the format [#]…[#] to specify values to include in your search results

    e.g.Laptops PKR15,000…50,000 to find results where laptops ranging in price from PKR15,000…50,000 are included in the results

Internet search techniques5
Internet Search Techniques water pollution

Searching by Search Operators


  • hit list includes sites containing the exact phrase "Robin Hood"

  • hit list includes sites containing the exact phrase "Robin Hood" and excludes sites containing the word "flour" (to exclude sites about the Robin Hood Flour Company)

"Robin Hood"

"Robin Hood" -movie

Text operators in the search1
Text Operators in the Search water pollution

  • filetype: PDF

  • title: Keywords

  • url: keywords

  • info:

    Returns listing the site and offers options for more information

  • link:

    Returns pages that link to the NASA site—about 155,000 pages

  • site:

    Returns results from the specified website

Internet search techniques6
Internet Search Techniques water pollution

Field Search Operators

TITLE Operator

  • Locates resources where the keyword occurs in the title of the web page

  • Example:

    URL Operator

  • Locates resources where the keyword occurs in the url of the web page

  • Example:

    LINK Operator

  • Locates resources where the keyword occurs in hyper-text links on the web page

  • Example: