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Developing institutional strategies to mainstream undergraduate research and inquiry for all students. TASKS! Please pick up the session handout Sit in groups of 3-4 perhaps with people you don’t know …. Discuss “ What experience, interests and questions do you bring to this session?”

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Developing institutional strategies to mainstream undergraduate research and inquiry for all students

TASKS!

  • Please pick up the session handout

  • Sit in groups of 3-4 perhaps with people you don’t know ….

  • Discuss

    “What experience, interests and questions do you bring to this session?”

  • For the moment these discussions are private!


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Transforming the student experience through developing institutional strategies to mainstream undergraduate research and inquiry for all students

Mick Healey

University of Gloucestershire

&

Alan Jenkins,

Consultant HE Academy

“… universities should treat learning as not yet wholly solved problems and hence always in research mode”

(Humboldt, 1810 translated 1970, quoted by Elton, 2005, 110)


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Session structure institutional strategies to mainstream undergraduate research and inquiry for all students

  • Exploring your views

  • Why value undergraduate research and inquiry?

  • Some research evidence

  • Different ways of integrating teaching and research

  • Case studies of mainstreaming undergraduate research and inquiry in institutions

  • Conclusion: your perspectives


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Undergraduate research and inquiry: institutional strategies to mainstream undergraduate research and inquiry for all students

Line-up

We want you to position yourselves on a line according to the extent to which you agree or disagree with the following statement

Talk to the person next to you about why you have positioned yourself where you have and as a consequence you may need to ‘move’


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Undergraduate research and inquiry: Line-up institutional strategies to mainstream undergraduate research and inquiry for all students

‘Undergraduate research is for ALL undergraduates’

Strongly ------------------------------ Strongly

Agree Disagree


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Undergraduate research and inquiry: Line-up institutional strategies to mainstream undergraduate research and inquiry for all students

It would be easy to ‘mainstream’ undergraduate research and inquiry for all students at my institution

________________________________

Strongly agree Strongly disagree


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Why value undergraduate research and inquiry institutional strategies to mainstream undergraduate research and inquiry for all students

“For the students who are the professionals of the future, developing the ability to investigate problems, make judgments on the basis of sound evidence, take decisions on a rational basis, and understand what they are doing and why is vital. Research and inquiry is not just for those who choose to pursue an academic career. It is central to professional life in the twenty-first century.”

Brew (2007, 7)


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The Institutional Challenge institutional strategies to mainstream undergraduate research and inquiry for all students

“Developing the Student as Scholar Model requires a fundamental shift in how we structure and imagine the whole undergraduate experience. It requires, as a minimum, the adoption of the Learning Paradigm in everything from the first introductory course through the final capstone experience. It requires a culture of inquiry-based learning infused throughout the entire liberal arts curriculum that starts with the very first day of college and is reinforced in every classroom and program.”

(Hodge et al. 2007, 1)


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Some ‘difficult’ research evidence institutional strategies to mainstream undergraduate research and inquiry for all students

In view of the central nature of teaching and research in HE… it is surprising how relatively few institutions have … policies to maximise these beneficial synergies. … Some strategies may be having the unintended consequences of driving teaching and research apart”

(JM Consulting 2000, 36)

“There is a policy gap between policy intention and student perceptions at UEA. …While students value being close to research ... there are many ways in which they feel excluded”

(Zamorski 2000, 1)

“Undergraduates feel excluded from direct involvement in research as stakeholders”

(Lindsay et al. 2002, 322)


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Some ‘positive’ research evidence institutional strategies to mainstream undergraduate research and inquiry for all students

“The strongest policy claim that derives from this meta analysis is that universities need to set as a mission goal the improvement of the nexus between research and teaching. … Examples of strategies to increase the relationship between teaching and research include …. increase the skills of staff to teach, emphasising the construction of knowledge by students rather than the imparting of knowledge by instructors …. ensure that students experience the process of artistic and scientific productivity”

Hattie and Marsh (1966, 533, 544)


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Some ‘positive’ research evidence institutional strategies to mainstream undergraduate research and inquiry for all students

“Students reported a varied experience of research across the three approaches (learning about others’ research, learning to do research, and learning through the research process) with no clear pattern emerging between these experiences and the research-intensivity of the institutions”

Turner et al. (in submission)

“Overwhelmingly, students define Undergraduate Research as a powerful affective, behavioral, and personal discovery experience whose dimensions have profound significance for their emergent adult identity, sense of career direction, and intellectual and professional development”

Hunter et al. (2007, 69)


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Different ways of linking teaching and research institutional strategies to mainstream undergraduate research and inquiry for all students

  • Learning about others’ research

  • Learning to do research – research methods

  • Learning in research mode – enquiry based

  • Pedagogic research – enquiring and reflecting on learning


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STUDENTS AS PARTICIPANTS institutional strategies to mainstream undergraduate research and inquiry for all students

Research-based

Research-tutored

EMPHASIS ON RESEARCHPROCESSES AND PROBLEMS

EMPHASIS ON RESEARCH CONTENT

Research-led

Research-oriented

STUDENTS AS AUDIENCE

Curriculum design and linking research and teaching


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What is undergraduate research and inquiry? institutional strategies to mainstream undergraduate research and inquiry for all students

“An inquiry or investigation conducted by an undergraduate student that makes an original intellectual or creative contribution to the discipline”

Council for Undergraduate Research

Adopts a broad definition of the undergraduate as researcher to describe student engagement at all levels in research and inquiry into disciplinary, professional and community-based problems and issues

University of Gloucestershire


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What is undergraduate research and inquiry? institutional strategies to mainstream undergraduate research and inquiry for all students

“Programmes that seek to encourage or support undergraduate research should:

  • Encourage and enable students to learn in ways that parallel or reflect the ways faculty/staff themselves research/learn in their discipline/professional area.

  • Build research opportunities into the formative processes and summative outcomes of course assessment for students in ways that retrace and register how faculty/staff develop and disseminate their own research/learning in their own discipline/professional area, e.g. through undergraduate research journals, student research conferences, exhibitions ….

  • Ensure that the programme is clearly visible and recognised as ‘undergraduate research’ by the university communities (in particular students) and parents, the local community, and possible external sponsors and stakeholders” (Jenkins 2008).


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Dimensions of undergraduate research and inquiry institutional strategies to mainstream undergraduate research and inquiry for all students

Student, process centred Outcome, product centred

Student initiated Faculty initiated

All students Honors students

Curriculum based Co-curricular fellowships

Collaborative Individual

Original to the student Original to the discipline

Multi-or interdisciplinary Discipline based

Campus/community audience Professional audience

Starting year one Capstone/final year

Pervades the curriculum Focussed

(Source: Adapted from Beckham and Hensel, 2007)


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Mainstreaming undergraduate research and inquiry: disciplinary perspectives

In pairs each skim read at least ONE different disciplinary case study (pp.10-25)

Discuss whether and how any of the ideas may be amended for application in your institutional contexts

8 minutes


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Mainstreaming undergraduate research and inquiry: your conclusions

What conclusions / observations do YOU now make about the view that all undergraduate students should:

“experience the process of artistic and scientific productivity’ (Hattie and Marsh, 1966, 544)

and in particular that this should be achieved by ‘mainstreaming’ undergraduate research and inquiry

YOUR observations are …


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Mainstreaming undergraduate research and inquiry: Our conclusions

  • ‘Undergraduate Research’ clearly puts the focus on the student as a researcher; but also challenges the institutional firewalls between teaching and research; and opens up research for all/many staff

  • Key institutional challenges include introducing inquiry /research in year one; balancing opportunities for all and for selected students; and holding onto / perhaps rethinking the final year capstone / dissertation

  • National teaching policies, Academy initiatives that focus on the student as scholar/researcher are important; and sane national research policies would help. Again US experience is important here.


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Mainstreaming undergraduate research and inquiry: Our conclusions

  • Getting students to produce knowledge is a powerful way to re-link teaching and research

  • The challenge is to mainstream undergraduate research so that all students may potentially benefit

  • Adopting a broader definition of undergraduate research than is currently common is a way forward (Boyer et al.), which should benefit the learning of students in institutions with a range of different missions

  • For some people though this may dilute what is undergraduate research

  • Institutional and national researchpolicies could more effectively support undergraduate research and inquiry


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Three web sites conclusions

Adapting US undergraduate research to the UK and other international contexts www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/sociology/research/cetl/ugresearch/

Leading, promoting and supporting undergraduate research in new universities (England)www.glos.ac.uk/tli/prsi/current/ugresearch/index.cfm

Council for Undergraduate Research (North America) www.cur.org