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Chapter 2- Ancient Greece & Rome 2.1- Ancient Greece. Early Greek Civilization The Polis: Center of Greek Life Sparta Athens Classical Greece The Culture of Classical Greece Alexander the Great. Early Greek Civilization.

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chapter 2 ancient greece rome 2 1 ancient greece

Chapter 2- Ancient Greece & Rome2.1- Ancient Greece

Early Greek Civilization

The Polis: Center of Greek Life



Classical Greece

The Culture of Classical Greece

Alexander the Great

early greek civilization
Early Greek Civilization
  • The mountains and the seas were important geographic influences on Greece
early greek civilization1
Early Greek Civilization
  • Mycenaean civilization flourished between 1600 and 1100 B.C.
  • Greece then entered a Dark Age when population declined and there was less food.
early greek civilization2
Early Greek Civilization
  • The works of Homer appeared at the end of the Dark Age
    • The Iliad and Odyssey are epic poems
    • The Greeks regarded the Iliad and Odyssey as history
    • Homer gave the Greeks an ideal past peopled with heroes
    • Generations of Greek males used these poems as models of heroism and honor
the polis center of greek life
The Polis: Center of Greek Life
  • By 750 B.C., the polis, or city-state, had become the central focus of Greek life
    • The polis was the town, city, or village and its surrounding countryside
    • The people met for political, religious, social, and economic activities
the polis center of greek life1
The Polis: Center of Greek Life
  • City-states varied in size
  • Most were between a few hundred and several thousand people
  • Athens was one of the largest, with a population of more than three hundred thousand by 400 B.C.
  • The polis was a community of people who shared a common identity and common goals
the polis center of greek life2
The Polis: Center of Greek Life
  • Greek states developed different forms of government
    • Some city-states became democracies, ruled by many
    • Others became oligarchies, ruled by the few
    • Two of the most powerful city-states, Athens and Sparta, illustrate the differences
The Greeks felt that rights also meant responsibilities. What might be some responsibilities of a citizen in a Greek city-state?

Possible answers:

Some responsibilities of a citizen in a Greek city-state include participating in government, paying taxes, defending the polis, and providing for others.

  • Between 800 and 600 B.C., the lives of the Spartans were rigidly controlled and disciplined
    • Boys learned military discipline, entered the military at age 20, and lived in the barracks until they were 30
    • At 30, Spartan males were allowed to vote in the assembly and live at home, but they remained in the army until the age of 60
    • Spartan women lived at home while their husbands lived in the barracks
    • Spartan women had more power than women in other Greek city-states
    • Spartan women supported Spartan values, expecting their husbands and sons to be brave in war
  • Two kings who led the Spartan army headed the oligarchy
  • Five men known as the ephors were responsible for education and the conduct of citizens
  • A council of elders, made up of the two kings and 28 citizens over 60 years of age, decided on issues the assembly of male citizens would vote on
    • The assembly did not debate, but only voted
  • Sparta closed itself off from the outside world
    • Foreigners and travel were discouraged
    • Spartans frowned upon new ideas and the arts
    • Only the art of war mattered
  • A king ruled early Athens
  • By the seventh century B.C., it was ruled by an oligarchy of aristocrats who owned the best land and controlled political life
  • Near the end of the seventh century B.C., economic problems led to political turmoil
    • Many Athenian farmers were sold into slavery for nonpayment of their debts to aristocrats
    • Cries arose to cancel the debts and give land to the poor
    • Civil war threatened
  • The aristocrats gave power to Solon in 594 B.C.
    • Solon favored reform
    • He canceled the debts but did not give land to the poor
    • This left the aristocrats in power and the poor unable to obtain land
  • In 508 B.C., Cleisthenes, another reformer, gained the upper hand
    • He created a new council of five hundred to supervise foreign affairs, oversee the treasury, and propose laws
    • He gave to the Athenian assembly, composed of male citizens, authority to pass laws after free and open debate
    • For this reason, Cleisthenes’ reforms laid the foundation for Athenian democracy
classical greece
Classical Greece
  • Classical Greece is the name given to the period from 500 to 338 B.C.
  • During this time, the Greeks fought two wars
    • The first war was against the Persians, who were defeated by the unified Greeks
    • Athens took over the leadership of the Greek world after the Persian War.
classical greece1
Classical Greece
  • Athens took over the leadership of the Greek world after the Persian War
  • Under Pericles, the dominant figure in Athenian politics from 461 to 429 B.C., Athens expanded its empire, while democracy flourished at home
    • Pericles created a direct democracy
    • Every male citizen could participate in the general assembly and vote on major issues
    • This period was called the Age of Pericles
classical greece2
Classical Greece
  • The Greek world was divided between the Athenian Empire and Sparta
    • Athens and Sparta had built very different societies, and they distrusted each other
  • After a series of disputes, the second war of Classical Greece, the Great Peloponnesian War, broke out in 431 B.C.
    • The civil war lasted until 405 B.C.
    • Athens surrendered when the Athenian fleet was destroyed.
    • The Great Peloponnesian War weakened the Greek city-states and ruined any hope of unity among them.
  • For the next 66 years, Sparta, Athens, and Thebes struggled for domination
    • These internal struggles caused the Greeks to ignore the growing power of Macedonia, an oversight that cost the Greeks their freedom
the culture of classical greece
The Culture of Classical Greece
  • The standards of classical Greek art dominated most of Western art history
    • Classical Greek art was concerned with expressing eternal ideals
    • The style was based on reason, moderation, balance, and harmony
    • Art was meant to civilize the emotions
  • The most important architectural form was the temple
    • The greatest example is the Parthenon
      • built in the fifth century B.C.
      • dedicated to the patron goddess of Athens, Athena
    • The Parthenon exemplifies the principles of classical architecture: calm, clarity, and freedom from unnecessary detail
the culture of classical greece1
The Culture of Classical Greece
  • The classical style of Greek sculpture depicted idealized, yet lifelike, male nudes
    • Greek sculptors did not seek to achieve realism
the culture of classical greece2
The Culture of Classical Greece
  • The dramas we see today are the descendants of Greek drama
    • Plays were presented as part of religious festivals
    • The original Greek dramas were tragedies, presented in trilogies around a common theme
    • Only one complete trilogy survives today, the Oresteia by Aeschylus
      • It tells the story of Agamemnon, a Trojan War hero, and his return home
      • Greek tragedies examined such universal themes as:
        • the nature of good and evil
        • the rights of individuals
        • the role of the gods in life
        • the nature of human beings
the culture of classical greece3
The Culture of Classical Greece
  • Philosophy (“love of wisdom”) refers to an organized system of rational thought
    • Early Greek philosophers were concerned with the nature of the universe
    • Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle are considered to be three of the greatest philosophers of the Western world
the culture of classical greece4
The Culture of Classical Greece
  • Socrates developed the Socratic method
    • a question-and-answer format to lead pupils to understand things for themselves
    • based on Socrates’ belief that knowledge is already present within each of us
    • The task of philosophy is to call forth knowledge.
    • Socrates said “the unexamined life is not worth living.”
    • The belief in the individual’s ability to reason was an important contribution of Greek thought
the culture of classical greece5
The Culture of Classical Greece
  • Plato was one of Socrates’ students and considered by many to be the greatest Western philosopher
    • Plato explained his views on government in a work entitled The Republic
    • Plato believed that people could not achieve a good life unless they lived in a just and rational state
    • The ideal state has three groups:
      • rulers
      • warriors
      • commoners
    • Led by a philosopher-king, men and women would have the same education and equal access to all positions

Plato established a school in Athens called the Academy

the culture of classical greece6
The Culture of Classical Greece
  • Plato’s most important pupil was Aristotle, who studied at the academy for 20 years
    • Aristotle had wide-ranging interests including ethics, logic, politics, poetry, astronomy, geology, biology, and physics
    • After studying and observing existing governments, Aristotle found three forms of government that would rationally direct human affairs:
      • monarchy
      • aristocracy
      • constitutional government
      • Aristotle preferred a constitutional government
philip ii
Philip II
  • The Greeks viewed the Macedonians to the north as barbarians
  • In 359 B.C., Philip II became king of Macedonia
    • He admired Greek culture and wanted to unite all of Greece under Macedonian rule.
    • At the Battle of Chaeronea in 338 B.C., Philip’s army crushed the Greeks
    • He united the Greek city-states in a league under his control and planned to conquer Persia
    • Philip was assassinated before he could fulfill his goal
alexander the great
Alexander the Great
  • Alexander the Great, Philip’s son, became king of Macedonia at age 20.
    • 334 B.C.- invaded the Persian Empire
    • by 331 B.C.-conquered all of the Persian Empire.