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By: Awakan, Ad Hareth K. Piaga, Christina Mae M. Viernes, Cristina C. DEBATE
DEBATE ……… is a competitive speaking activity between two or more people arguing about a proposition of policy or judgment under mutually agreed-upon rules in front of a listener(s) who has the responsibility to decide who did the better job of debating using whatever criteria the listener deems important.
HISTORY Debate Tournaments Athens and Rome Academic Debate Public Speaking Immigrants 1930’s Early years
The roots of academic debate started to the golden ages of Athens and Rome. Students gave speeches about hypothetical legal, social, and political questions, honing their arguing skills and helping them become societal leaders. Debate training continued during the Renaissance in Western Europe.
Immigrants brought interest in debate to the new world. Literary societies provides opportunity to debate the issues of the day. These societies gave people to appreciate the importance of debate and to participate in decision making.
In the early years of debate activity, individual tournament hosts chose a debate topic. Gradually the popularity of the activity came to require a single, national topic. Usually this topics were policy propositions in which debaters researched and debated contemporary public issues.
The debate tournament model has been largely unchanged since 1930s. Competitive speech and debates often are combined under the terms forensics, borrowing from the classical term for legal or judgmental speaking.
Academic debate in first half of the twentieth century gradually settled on specific debate formats and agreements on rules. Two person teams gradually replaced three, four or five person teams as the dominant model. Other innovations included the use of cross examination in debate or single person debate.
Debate tournaments typically consists of six or eight debate rounds for each team, with each team expected to debate both sides of the resolution. Forensic tournaments frequently offer competition in public speaking and oral interpretation events in addition to debates.
Through classroom speeches and debates, students practiced public speaking skills and learned about the public policy issues. These early debates were public spectacles where every one in the campus observed the combatants. In those times debates were more popular than even football games.
Purpose of Debate 1. Develop decisive awareness. 2. Provide a situation more conducive than meditation to develop concentration. 3. Develop your personality.
You need to have this convince awareness and firm conviction when meditating single-mindedly on any topic such as impermanence, the equality of self and others, voidness, an so on. -
Once you develop concentration skills on the debate ground, you can apply them to meditation, even to meditating in noisy places.
You cannot remain shy and still debate. You must speak up when your opponent challenges you. If you are arrogant your mind is unclear, your partner defeats you. You need to maintain emotional balance at all times
IMPORTANCE OF DEBATE Debate is the foundation of a free society. 2 . Debate is an important career skill. Debate builds courage. 4. Debate is a life skill.
The American founders installed • institutions, such as Congress, that use debate as a critical method to ensure that decision makers examine competing positions before reaching a decision. Parliamentary procedures has emerged as a system of rules to promote fair discussions and debate in forum of any size.
Trial attorneys are debaters arguing the merits of a legal case or guilt or innocence of a defendant. • Public relations professionals sometimes debate the perception that their clients are not acting in the public interest. • Political candidates are expected to debate.
Debate training is helpful in building courage. Preparing a debate case or position, anticipating opposing viewpoints, and publicly testing those positions in oral competition with another person entails considerable courage.
Debate can overcome these obstacles. Debate is a form of a critical thinking, a way gathering and interpreting information. A debater learns not to trust assertions. A debater knows how to appreciate and overcome objections to a position and appreciate that problems and issues have more than one side.
Benefits of Debate BENEFITS OF DEBATE 1. Develop every members inclination, talent and skill at public speaking and debate. 2.Develop among members a culture a rationality and independence of thought.
3. Provide leadership training and fellowship activities designed to enhance a positive attitude in a Christian environment. 4. Provide a forum for argumentation and discussion of local, national and international issues.
PEOPLE INVOLVED IN A DEBATE V V V V V V People Involved in a Debate1. Room Layout for Debate
Affirmative Team - team of speakers who support the moot. They present a team case in favor of it.
2. Negative Team - team of speakers who oppose the moot. They present a team case against it.
3. Chair/ Chairperson - welcomes the audience, announces the moot, introduces the teams, outlines the basic rules for the debate, welcomes the adjudicator, and the expectations of audience behavior.
4. Timekeeper - keeps the speaking times of the debaters and announces them.
5. Adjudicator - judge the debate and decide which team has presented the more successful argument on the moot.
6. Audience - viewers of the debate
Kinds of Debate kinds of debate: • Parliamentary Debate • Mace Debate • Public Debate • Australasia Debate
5. Policy Debate 6. Classical Debate 7. Extemporaneous Debate 8. Lincoln- Douglas Debate 9. Karl Topper Debate
Parliamentary Debate - features the competition in individuals an a multi- person setting.
Mace Debate - Two teams of two debate an affirmative motion; one team will propose and the other will oppose. - each speaker will make a seven minute speech in the order; 1st proposition, 1st opposition, 2nd proposition, 2nd opposition.
Public Debate - two teams of two - teams are given 15 minutes to create an outline before they begin to debate. - topic of the debate is unknown to the speaker.
Australasia Debate - two teams who debate over an issue. - most topics are usually region specific to facilitate interest by both the participants and their audience. - an affirmative statement begins with “that” or “this”
Policy Debate - two teams of two debates advocate or oppose a plan derived from a resolution that usually calls for a change in policy by a government.
Classical Debate - a resolution decided at the beginning of the season, is the de facto topic for each debate, where the affirmative affirms and negative negates it. - the emphasis on depth instead of breadth provided by the restriction can make for interesting rounds that often come down to arguments that might otherwise pale in other formats.
Extemporaneous Debate - no planning in advance
Lincoln- Douglas Debate - named after the Lincoln-Douglas debate of 1858. - one-on-one event focused mainly on applying philosophical theories to real world issues.
Karl Topper Debate - focuses on relevant and often deeply divisive propositions, emphasizing the development of artificial thinking skills and tolerance for differing viewpoints. - debaters work together in teams of three and research both sides of each issue.
Importance of research • It is necessary not only to win debate rounds but to increase the educational component of the activity. • Research provides different types of knowledge: specific, advocacy and strategic.
General knowledge helps us gain a broad understanding of particular issue. • Research helps us know what is in the literature and then use this information to our strategic advantage.
Using evidence in Debate • There are some general factors that debaters can use to determine if evidence is forceful, useful, and effective.
Sufficient Numbers • - Does the evidence incorporate a sufficient number of example or cases to illustrate the point?
Statistical Accommodations • Does the evidence address any problems • the statistic may have, such as unrepresentative samples, faulty survey questions, or complex or unclarified sampling procedures?
Reliability • - Is the evidence from a reliable source? • Value Characteristics • - Can the evidence support claims such as “best” study?
Consistency • - Is the evidence generally consistent with other forms of evidence and consistent with itself?
Types of Debate Evidence There are three types of debate evidence and these are: Expert Opinion Facts Precedent and Tradition
Expert Opinion • Certain people have earned the right or have the power to influence the way we think and behave. Experts may help us understand complex issues and may highlight values that may be used to make difficult opinions.
Facts • Facts are perception of reality. We may or may not consider facts as “true” statements. • A critical issue in value debate may revolve around disagreement over the accuracy and acceptability of facts.