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英译汉专题讲座

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  1. 英译汉专题讲座

  2. 翻译标准: 忠实和通顺 • 忠实 Faithfulness 1)忠实于原作的内容。译者必须把原作的内容完整而准确地表达出来,不得有任何歪曲,遗漏或任意增删的现象。 2)忠实于原作的风格。如:不能把通俗的口语体译成文绉绉的书面体;不能把富于西方色彩风格的译成富于东方色彩的风格等等。 • 通顺 Smoothness 译文语言必须通顺易懂,符合规范。译文必须是明白晓畅的现代汉语,没有逐词死译,硬译的现象,没有语言晦涩,文理不通,结构混乱,逻辑不清的现象.

  3. 翻译方法:直译和意译 • 直译 Literal translation 所谓直译,就是在译文语言条件许可时,在译文中既保持原文的内容,又保持原文的形式,特别是保持原文的比喻,形象和民族,地方色彩等,做到内容和形式兼顾。 例如: Hitler was armed to the teeth when he aunched the Second World War, but in a few years, he was completely defeated. 希特勒在发动第二次世界大战时是武装到牙齿的,可是不过几年,就被彻底击败了。

  4. 但是,直译不是死译或硬译。 如:Nothing can be done. 没有什么事可以被做。(×) We saw an acrobat standing on his head. 我们看见一个杂技演员正站在他的头上。 (×)

  5. 意译 Free translation 每一个民族语言都有自己的词汇,句法结构和表达方法。当原文的思想内容与译文的表达形式有矛盾,而不宜采用直译法,就应采用意译法。意译不是任意乱译。意译要求译文能正确表达原文的内容,但可以不拘泥于原文的形式。 如:Do you see any green in my eye? 你以为我好欺负吗? 你以为我好骗吗?等

  6. 小结: 无论是直译还是意译,都须遵循“忠实”和“通顺”这两条标准。但这两条标准不是孤立,分割的,而是统一于翻译的全过程。若只追求忠实,而无视通顺,译文则会晦涩难懂或者味如嚼蜡;若只追求通顺,而忘了忠实,译文则会面目全非。所以,翻译的任务就是寻求二者的统一。要做到真正的统一,就必须适当地处理两者之间的关系。

  7. 翻译技巧 I 正反、反正表达法 II 分句、合句法 III重复法 IV 词类转译法 V 转态译法 VI 增词法 VII 省略法 VIII 词义的引申和词义的褒贬

  8. 一. 正反、反正表达法 英汉两种语言的表达习惯不同,因此在表达否定概念时会有很大差异。但英语和汉语中均有从正面或反面来表达一种概念的现象,翻译时必须要符合各自的语言习惯和特点。在翻译过程中,根据具体情况,可分为正说反译和反说正译两种译法。

  9. 1) 正说反译:英语从正面表达,译文从反面表达,即把英语的肯定句译成汉语的否定句。 1. The first bombs missed the target. 第一批炸弹没有击中目标。 2. We believe that the younger generation will prove worthy of our trust. 我们相信,年轻的一代将不会辜负我们的信任。 3. It would be most disastrous if even a rumor of it were given out. 这件事若是有一点点风声传出去,后果将不堪设想。

  10. 4. He is the last person I want to see in the world. 他是这个世上我最不想见的人。 5. It was beyond his power to sign such a contract. 他无权签订这样的合同。 6. The above facts insist on the following conclusions. 基于以上事实,我们不得不得出以下结论。

  11. 2) 反说正译:英语从反面表达,汉语从正面表达。即把英语的否定句译成汉语的肯定句。 1. It was said that someone had sown discord among them. 据说有人在他们中间挑拨离间。 2. Such thing couldn't long escape notice. 这种事迟早会被人发现的。 3. There is no rule that has no exception. 所有规则都有例外。

  12. 4. The examination left no doubt that the patient had died of cancer. 检查结果证实(清楚表明)病人死于癌症。 5. The United Nations has not, so far, justified the hopes that the people of the world set on it. 迄今为止,联合国辜负了世界人民对它所寄予的希望。 6. One cannot be too careful while driving in the area. 在这个地方开车,越小心越好。

  13. 二. 分句、合句法 (1) 分句法 和汉语相比,英语中长句较多,只要结构上没有错误,许多意思往往可以放在一个长句中表达;汉语则相反,不同的意思往往通过不同的短句表达出来。所以,英语中很多长而复杂的句子,翻译成中文时,就经常被拆分成许多短小的句子。 1) 把原文的一个单词,或一个短语译成一个句子。 1. Not surprisingly, they did not respond at all. 他们没有回复,这不足为奇 2. Energy can neither be created nor destroyed, auniversally accepted law. 能量既不能被创造,也不能被毁灭,这是一个普世的规律

  14. 3. The Chinese seemed justifiably proud of their economic achievements. 中国人对他们所取得的经济成就似乎很自豪,这无可厚非。 4. He unnecessarily spent a lot of time introducing this book, which the students are familiar with. 他花了大量的时间介绍这本学生很熟悉的书,这根本没有必要。

  15. 2)把原文的一个句子拆开,译成两个或两个以上的汉语句子。2)把原文的一个句子拆开,译成两个或两个以上的汉语句子。 1. I was deeply impressed by his firm tone when announcing the decision. 他宣布决定时语气坚决,我对此印象颇深。 2. There is an incredible fact that only 60 percent of young people in this area can read. 这个地区只有百分之六十的年轻人会识字,真是难以置信。 3. His failure to observe the safety regulations resulted in an accident to the machinery. 他没有遵守安全规则,结果导致机器出了事故。 4. He arrived in Washington at a ripe moment internationally. 他抵达华盛顿,就国际形式来说,时机正好。

  16. (2) 合句法 虽然英译汉时,分句法用得较多,但有时,为了使译文层次分明,或使上下文更加紧凑,更合乎汉语的表达方式或习惯,有时也会采用合句法。 1) 把原文中的两个或两个以上的简单句译成一个单句。 1. Darkness fell. A heavy rain poured down. 夜幕降临时分,下起了倾盆大雨。 2. She missed her son badly. He was studying in Britain at that time. 她非常想念当时还在伦敦读书的儿子。 3. She is very busy at home. She has to take care ofthe children and do the housework. 她在家很忙,又要带孩子,又要做家务。

  17. 2)把原文中的主从复合句或并列复合句译成一个单句。2)把原文中的主从复合句或并列复合句译成一个单句。 1. When we praise the Chinese leadership and the people, we are not merely being polite. 我们对中国人民和中国领导人的赞扬,并不仅仅是出 于礼貌。 2. When I negotiate, I get nervous. When I get nervous, I eat. 我一谈判就紧张,一紧张就吃东西。 3. The time was 10:30, and traffic on the street was light. 十点半的时候,街上的车辆(和行人)稀少了。

  18. 三. 重复法 翻译和写作一样,本应力求简练,尽量省略一些有可无的词,但有时为了明确,强调或生动,却往往需要将一些关键性的词加以重复。 另外,汉语中有大量的四字词组,这是汉语的一大特点。四字词组比较精炼,念起来顺口,有节奏感,如运用恰当,可使文字生动活泼,增强修辞效果。为了使译文符合忠实,通顺的标准,译者有时可酌情运用两个同义或近义的四字词组,这也可以说是一种重复。

  19. 1. Happy families also had their own troubles. 幸福家庭也有幸福家庭的烦恼。 2. He was proficient both as a flyer and as a navigator. 他即精于飞行,又善于导航。 3. Big powers have their strategies while small countries also have their own lines. 强国有强国的策略,小国有小国的路线。 4. I had experienced oxygen and/or engine trouble. 我曾遇到过,不是氧气设备出故障,就是引擎出故障,或者两个都出故障。 5. But there had been too much publicity about my case now. 但现在,我的事已经是满城风雨,路人皆知了。 6. Only a very slight and very scattering ripples of half-hearted hand-clapping greeted him. 欢迎他的只有几下轻轻的,零零落落,冷冷淡淡的掌声。

  20. 四 词类转译法 (1) 转译成动词 英语和汉语比较,汉语中动词用得比较多。往往在英语句子中只用一个谓语动词,而在汉语中却可以几个动词或动词性结构连用。因此,英语中不少词类,尤其是名词,前置词,形容词,副词,在汉译时往往可以转译成动词。 1) 由动词派生出来的名词经常转译成动词 1. Rockets have found application for the exploration of the universe. 火箭已被用来探索宇宙。 2. An acquaintance of world history is helpful to the study of current affairs. 熟知世界史有助于学习时事。 3. His suggestion is that we take measures right now. 他建议我们马上采取措施。

  21. 2) 含有动作意味的名词常常转译成动词 • A glance through his office window offers a panoramic view(全景) of the Washington Monument and the Lincoln Memorial. 从他办公室的窗户可以一眼看见华盛顿纪念碑和林肯纪念馆的全景。 2.At the thought of the mishap his legs stiffened(变硬) under him and couldn’t move a step further. 一想到不幸,他的腿就像灌铅似地,再也迈不动了。

  22. 3) 有些加-er后缀的名词,并不指身份或职业,而是含有较强的动作意味,则常转译成动词 1. He is no smoker, but his father is a chain -smoker. 他不抽烟,但是他的父亲却是一根接一根抽个不停。 2. Some of my classmates are good singers. 我们班有的同学歌唱得很好。 3. Talking with his son, the old man was the forgiver of the young man’s past wrong doings. 在和儿子谈话过程中,老人原谅了这个年轻人过去所 做的种种错事。

  23. 4) 某些表示心理状态的形容词,在系动词后作表语时转译成动词 1. They were suspicious and resentful of him. 他们怀疑他,怨恨他。 2. If we were ignorant of the structure of the atom, it would be impossible for us to study nuclear physics. 不了解原子结构,就不可能学习核物理。

  24. (2) 转译成名词 1) 名词派生的动词通常转译成名词 1.To them, he personified the absolute power. 对他们来说,他就是绝对权力的化身。 2.Such materials are characterized by good insulation(绝缘) and high resistance to wear. 这些材料的特点是:绝缘性好,耐磨性高。

  25. 2) 名词转用的动词往往转译成名词 1. Because he had struck a boss, he was blacklisted and finally lost his job. 他打了一个工头,所以被列上了黑名单,最终丢了工作。 2. Most U.S. spy satellites are designed to burn up in the earth’s atmosphere after completing their missions. 大多数美国间谍卫星,据其设计,在完成使命后,会在大气层焚 毁。

  26. 3) 有些形容词转译成名词 1. Stevenson was eloquent and elegant , but soft. 史蒂文森有口才,有风度,但性格软弱。 2. The Wilde family were religious. 王尔德全家都是虔诚的教徒。

  27. 五. 转态译法 英语被动语态的使用远比汉语频繁,科技英语尤其如此。汉语虽然也有“被”,“由”,“把” “受”等词表示动作是被动的,但这种表达远没有英语的被动语态那么常见。因此,英语中的被动句在汉译时往往成了主动句,如,译成汉语的无主句,或加上“人们”来作为译文的主语等等。 例如,以下的这些固定句式通常都有固定的译法: It is said that…据说, It is reported that…据报道 It is hoped that …大家希望

  28. 4.It must be pointed out that … 必须指出 5.It can not be denied that … 不可否认 6.It will be seen from this that … 由此可见 7.It may be said without fear of exaggeration that …毫不夸张地说 8.It is always stressed that …我们一再强调 9.It is widely accepted that …人们普遍认为 10.It is well known that … 众所周知 再如下面的这些句子: • New sources of energy must be found, and this will take time. 必须找到新能源,而这需要时间。 2.Last year, the region was visited by the worst drought in 60 years. 去年,这个地区遭遇了六十年不遇的大旱。

  29. 3.A contingency plan was hastily drawn up. 他们匆匆忙忙地拟定了一个应急方案。 4.They were given a hearty welcome. 他们受到了了热烈的欢迎。 5.On the whole such an conclusion can be drawn with a certain degree of confidence. 总的来说,我们可以肯定地得出这样一个结论。

  30. 六. 增词法 增词法就是在翻译时根据意义,修辞,或句法的需要而增加一些词来更忠实通顺地表达原文的思想内容。增词不是无中生有的随意增词,而是增加原文中虽无其词而有其意的一些词。 1. As he sat down and began talking, words poured out. 他一坐下来就开始说了,滔滔不绝,说个没完。 2. He is a complicated man _____ moody and with a melancholy streak. 他是个性格复杂的人:喜怒无常,又有些郁郁寡欢。 3. He allowed the father to be overruled(支配,制服) by the judge, and declared his own son guilty. 他让法官的职责战胜了父子的私情,而宣判自己的儿子有罪。

  31. 4. Inflation has now reached unprecedented level. 通货膨胀现在已到了空前严重的地步。 5. I can say to you, without any flattery, that the Chinese way of co-operations is more inventive and fruitful than others. 我可以对你说,我这样说没有丝毫的奉承之意,那就是,中国的合作方式比起他国的合作方式,更有创意,更有成效。

  32. 七.省略法 省译法就是出于译文语法和习惯表达法的需要,或是出于修辞的需要,把原文中需要而译文不需要的单词,词组等在翻译过程中加以省略。 1. You can hardly tell. 很难说。 2. If winter comes, can spring be far behind? 冬天来了,春天还会远吗? 3. Even as the doctor was recommending rest, he knew that one could never get real rest without a peaceful mind. 尽管医生建议休息,但他知道,心静不下来,是休息不好的。

  33. 4. When the pressure gets low, the boiling-point becomes low. 气压低,沸点就低。 5. You’ve got to be careful of these lawyers. If you are not careful, they’ll take you and turn your inside out. 你得当心这些律师,你一不小心,他们就会抓住你,把你的老底都 给兜出来。 6. University applicants who had worked at a job would receive preference over those who had not. 申请上大学的人,有工作经验的优先录取。

  34. 八. 词义的引申和词义的褒贬 (1) 词义的引申 英语中,常常用一个表示具体形象的词来表示一种属性,一个事物,或一种概念。翻译这类词时,一般要将词义作抽象化的引申,译文才能流畅,自然。 1. There is a mixture of the tiger and the ape in the character of the imperialists. 帝国主义的性格既残忍,又狡猾。 2. Every life has its roses and thorns. 每个人的生活都有苦有甜。 3. The invention of machinery had brought into the world a new era ____ the industrial age. Money had become King. 机器的发明使世界进入一个新时代,即工业时代。从此,金钱成了主 宰。

  35. (2) 词义的褒贬 1) 英语中有些词本身就有褒贬意义,汉译时应相应地表 达出来。 1. He was a man of high renown. 他是一个很有声望的人。 2. His notoriety as a rake did not come until his death. 他作为流氓的恶名在他死后才传开。 3. Henry keeps boasting that he has talked to the President. 亨利总是吹嘘说,他和总统说过话。

  36. 2) 英语中有些词义是中立的,本身没有褒贬含义,但在一定的上下文中可能有褒贬的意味,汉译时应该将其褒贬表达出来。 1. Those who do not remember the past are condemned torelive it. 那些忘记历史的人,必定会重蹈覆辙。 2. As a demanding boss, he expected total loyalty from his employees. 他是一个苛刻的老板,期望员工对他绝对的忠诚。 3. He was a man of integrity, but unfortunately he had a certain reputation. I believe the reputation was not deserved. 他是个正直的人,但不幸的是名声不太好。我相信,他不该有这种 坏名声。

  37. 4. Hitler pursued an aggressive policy after he seized power. 希特勒在夺权后,推行了侵略政策。 5. John was an aggressive salesman who did his job quite well. 约翰是个很有干劲的售货员(推销员),他的工作干得很好。 6. Mr. Brown felt greatly flattered when he received the invitation to deliver a lecture. 布朗先生受邀请去做一次演讲,他感到不胜荣幸。 7. Hans was too obviously flattering the gentleman by saying he was the most courageous man he had ever seen. 汉斯说那位先生是他所见过的最勇敢的人,他显然是在讨好人家。