The relation between the patient and the pharmacist is covenant or promise ,and this professional covenant is similar to a legal contract , in which each party makes certain promises. • In this case , the pharmacist agrees to provide pharmaceutical care to the patient and the patient agrees to provide payment and any needed information to the pharmacist.
Implicit in this covenant is the idea that the pharmacist has certain moral obligations to the patient, specially to provide quality pharmaceutical care, that provision responsible on improving patient well-being.
The moralistic basis of biomedical ethics the APha codetend to take the position of nonconsequentialists, which is based on the following principles: • Autonomy : An action is right if it respects the autonomy, or independent choice, of the others. • Veracity : telling the truth is right. • Fidelity: keeping promises, commitments, contracts, and covenants is right. • Avoiding killing: Taking of human life is wrong. • Justice: fair distribution of goods and harms is right.
The other major school of though, Consequentialist, general considers an actions to be right when they have beneficial outcomes for the people involved and wrong if they have detrimental ضار consequence. • Beneficence الاحسان : the principle that guides the actions and behaviors of practitioners toward beneficial patient outcomes.
Non-malificenceعدم الايذاء:the principle that urges practitioners to avoid actions and behaviors that might bring harm to their patients. • These two principle is embodied جسدتfrom the Hippocratic oath:"As to disease , make habit of two things –to help, or at least to do no harm."
Utilitarianism is a theory in ethics holding that the proper course of action is the one that maximizes utility, specifically defined as maximizing happiness and reducing suffering.
Ethical Framework Nonconsequentialist: • Autonomy • Veracity • Fidelity • Justice • Privacy/Confidentiality Consequentialist: • Utilitarianism • Beneficence • Nonmalificence
It is difficult to maintain a separation between beneficence and non-maleficence, because no action or procedure is completely safe or completely effective , thus the line can be blur between doing good and not doing harm, for in doing good one can inadvertently doing harm
Medical ethics is derived from a combination of the above elements, but the subject can be discussed by looking at four principles that embody all of the above concepts: • Respect for patient autonomy • Non-maleficence • Beneficence • justice
Code of Ethics for Pharmacists PREAMBLE • Pharmacists are health professionals who assist individuals in making the best use of medications. This Code, prepared and supported by pharmacists, is intended to state publicly the principles that form the fundamental basis of the roles and responsibilities of pharmacists. • These principles, based on moral obligations and virtues, are established to guide pharmacists in relationships with patients, health professionals, and society.
A pharmacist respects the covenantal relationship between the patient and pharmacist. II. A pharmacist promotes the good of every patient in a caring, compassionate, and confidential manner.
III. A pharmacist respects the autonomy and dignity of each patient. IV. A pharmacist acts with honesty and integrity in professional relationships.
V. A pharmacist maintains professional competence. VI. A pharmacist respects the values and abilities of colleagues and other health professionals.
VII. A pharmacist serves individual, community, and societal needs. VIII. A pharmacist seeks justice in the distribution of health resources.