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DNA and Protein Synthesis. Nucleic Acids. Nucleic Acids - Function. Control the processes of heredity by which cells and organisms make proteins. Nucleic Acids – Types . DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid RNA Ribonucleic Acid. As you know, DNA stands for…. DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID.

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Presentation Transcript
nucleic acids function
Nucleic Acids - Function
  • Control the processes of heredity by which cells and organisms make proteins.
nucleic acids types
Nucleic Acids – Types
  • DNA
    • Deoxyribonucleic Acid
  • RNA
    • Ribonucleic Acid
slide5

As you know, DNA stands for….

DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID

slide8

One of FOUR different NITROGEN BASES

Phosphate Group

Sugar= Deoxyribose

All nucleotides have three “parts” in common. They all contain….

slide9

PLEASE UNDERSTAND, A NUCLEOTIDE IS A VERY COMPLEX STRUCTURE. IF WE REPRESENTED ALL OF THE ATOMS, IT WOULD LOOK LIKE THIS…

slide10

PHOSPHATE

NITROGEN BASE

SUGAR

We will use our hands to represent a nucleotide.

slide11

A

T

G

C

The four different Nitrogen Bases for DNA are abbreviated using the following letters….

Adenine

Thymine

Guanine

Cytosine

slide12

Using your two hands, please show how you think two nucleotides will/should bond together.

Did you put your hands like this???

slide13

T

A

In DNA, Adenine always pairs with Thymine using two hydrogen bonds.

slide15

C

G

In DNA GUANINE always pairs with CYTOSINE using three hydrogen bonds.

slide17

THE

ENTIRE

MOLECULE

AT THE

ATOMIC

LEVEL

slide18

Time to use your brain and hands in order to review nucleotide structure and type.

USING YOUR HAND, SHOW ME THYMINE

USING YOUR HAND SHOW ME ADENINE

SHOW ME CYTOSINE

SHOW ME HOW CYTOSINE AND THYMINE BOND TO FORM A RUNG ON THE LADDER

THEY DON’T

slide19

OK

Now that you recognize nucleotide type and structure, it’s time to start building the polymer from these monomers.

slide20

In order to make a molecule of DNA, you would need to create many rungs to the DNA ladder.

Look. Many Rungs.

Etc…

slide21

Sugar, Phosphate.

Sugar, Phosphate.

Sugar, Phosphate.

Etc…

What part of the nucleotide alternates to form the sides of the DNA ladder?

Etc…

slide22

The Nitrogen Bases

What makes up the “RUNGS” of the ladder?

slide23

Go Ahead!

Stack your hands on top of your partner’s hands building two rungs of the DNA ladder.

slide25

If you link enough nucleotides together, the DNA molecule begins to take on the characteristic shape known as the

Double Helix

let s review first
Let’s Review First…
  • Nucleic Acid
  • Nucleotide
  • DNA
  • RNA
  • Nitrogen Base
  • Double Helix
nucleic acid structure
Nucleic Acid – Structure
  • Made up of a chain of Nucleotides that contain
    • Phosphate backbone
    • Sugar
    • Nitrogen base
      • Guanine
      • Cytosine
      • Adenine
      • Thymine (Found only in DNA)
      • Uracil (Found only in RNA)
slide31
DNA

SUGAR

Phosphate

slide32
Let’s see how well you looked at the diagram…regarding the nitrogen bases, Adenine always bonds with which one?
  • Cytosine
  • Thymine
  • Guanine
  • Uracil
slide33
DNA

SUGAR

Phosphate

candy dna
Candy DNA
  • Pipe cleaner for the form
  • Red Twizzler = Deoxyribose
  • Black Twizzler = Phosphate
  • Colored Marshmallows = nitrogen bases
candy dna36
Candy DNA
  • Colored Marshmallows = Nitrogen Bases
    • Pink Marshmallow = Adenine
    • Green Marshmallow = Thymine
    • Yellow Marshmallow = Cytosine
    • Orange Marshmallow = Guanine
  • We’ll use toothpicks to join the nitrogen bases to the sugar
dna replication
DNA Replication
  • 1.) DNA unzips
  • 2.) Free nucleotides bond with open complementary base pairs
  • 3.) 2 new strands formed
protein synthesis
Protein Synthesis
  • It’s a process
    • DNA -> RNA -> Amino Acids (Protein)
slide46
RNA
  • Sugar is Ribose NOT what…
  • Has nitrogen base Uracil instead of Thymine
    • Also contains the other 3 bases…what are they?
  • Only single stranded
transcription
Transcription
  • 1.) DNA strand unzips
    • The bonds between the nitrogen bases are broken
  • 2.) A single strand of mRNA (messenger RNA) is made
    • Pair up the bases
  • 3.) mRNA travels from nucleus to cytoplasm
why is mrna called messenger rna
Why is mRNA called messenger RNA?
  • Because it carries the directions to make a protein to the ribosome like a message
translation
Translation
  • mRNA meets up with a ribosome…why??
  • tRNA molecules bring amino acids to ribosomes
  • An mRNA codon will pair with a tRNA anticodon
    • Codon: 3 Nitrogen base sequence in mRNA that specifies a specific amino acid
    • Anticodon: 3 Nitrogen base sequence in tRNA
  • As tRNA’s are added, amino acids are bonded together and will be released as a fully functional protein.
that s the process now how do you know what amino acids make up a particular protein
That’s the process, Now how do you know what amino acids make up a particular protein
  • We use an mRNA codon chart