BELLWORK • What is collectivization? How does this relate to the main idea of communism? • What is genocide? Besides the Holocaust, can you think of other examples of genocide in world history? • What is the Final Solution? How did Hitler implement this throughout the Third Reich? • List three reasons of conflict between the USSR and US. (Think about Yalta & Potsdam and the goals of each country) • Make a prediction Why did the USSR and US emerge as superpowers after WWII?
Spring Semester Review BELLWORK • Define domestic economy. • How did the Enlightenment influence revolutions in the Americas? • What was the outcome of the Congress of Vienna? • Where did the Industrial Revolution start? Why did it start here? • What is a sphere of influence? Why did European powers create these? • THINKER: Why do genocides continue to happen? Is there anyway genocide can be prevented? If so, how?
Genocides Post-HolocaustCambodia & Rwanda Why do genocides continue to happen? Is there anyway genocide can be prevented?
Cambodia • 1975-1978 • Under Khmer Rouge (communist party of Cambodia) & led by Pol Pot • The Khmer Rouge arrested, tortured, and executed anyone suspected of belonging to several categories of supposed "enemies:” • Connections to former or foreign governments • Professionals & Intellectuals (In practice, this included everyone with an education) • Artists, musicians, writers • Catholics, Muslims, Buddhists • Ethnic Vietnamese, Chinese, Thai populations • “Economic Saboteurs:” former urban populations • Death toll is estimated between 1.4M-3.2M • Ended w/ Vietnam’s invasion of Cambodia
Rwanda • April-July 1994 • During Rwandan Civil War, between the Hutu-led government and the Tutsi (refugees who fled to Uganda due to Hutu violence) • Carried out by Hutu members of government, national police & army • These forces recruited or pressured Hutu civilians to arm themselves with machetes, clubs, and other weapons to rape, mutilate and kill their Tutsi neighbors and destroy or steal their property • Established check points and used Rwandans' national identity cards to verify their ethnicity and kill Tutsi • 500,000-1M were killed (70% of Tutsis) • Ended when Tutsi guerillas captured the capital and overthrew the government
What do YOU think? • In both the Cambodian and Rwandan genocides, the US was criticized for their lack of involvement. Do you think the US should help countries suffering from genocide? Why or why not? • What do all these genocides have in common?
REMINDERS! • If you missed the essay portion of the Spring Final, it needs to be made up THIS WEEK!!! • Monday & Tuesday: Cold War • Wednesday/Thursday: Study guide work time • Friday/Monday: Final Review • All late/missing work is due THIS FRIDAY 5/16!!!! • Tuesday 5/20: pd. 2 Spring Final • Thursday 5/22: pd. 6 Spring Final • Study guides are due on the day of your final!
The Cold War 1945-1991
Why did the USSR and US emerge from WWII as superpowers? • Europe was destroyed. • No longer is Germany, France or Great Britain the seat of power. • US emerged as economic leader with #1 air force • Stalin emerged as political leader with #1 army • Both felt they were the reason for Allied victory • The first place that the struggle for post-war domination will begin is Europe.
What is a “cold war”? • HOT war- actual fighting between two forces. • COLD war- still a conflict but more of ideas than actual battles. Fighting still occurs but not between the two major enemies. • In this “Cold War” the ideologies of the United States & the Soviet Union, of Capitalist Democracy versus Communism, square off against each other. • The Cold War was the struggle between these two Superpowers to gain worldwide influence.
Seven major strategies were used by both sides: 1. Brinkmanship, 2. Espionage, 3. Foreign aid, 4. Alliances, 5. Propaganda, 6. Proxy wars. 7. Arms Race 1. 3. 2. 4. 6. 5. 13
Cold War Goals United States Soviet Union Promote communism globally Influence communist revolutions in developing nations Cuba: Fidel Castro China: Mao Zedong North Korea: Kim Il Sung North Vietnam: Ho Chi Minh Stop the aggression of the US & out-produce them! • Promote democracy throughout the world, especially in Europe, Asia and Africa. • Stop the spread of communism (“Domino Theory”) • Out-produce the USSR (resources, military, etc.)
Cold War Intro Questions • As we learn about the Cold War, you need to understand the background of US-Soviet tensions. • As an intro to the Cold War, you will read chapter 21, section 1, pgs. 640-645 and answer the following 12 questions. • We will pick up here tomorrow, be ready to discuss!
Questions • What was the purpose of the UN? • How is power divided within the UN? • Which two US presidents tried to work with Stalin after WWII? How did this turn out? • How did Stalin break his promise from the Yalta Conference? • What are satellite nations? • What was the iron curtain? • Describe the policy of containment. • Describe post-WWII conditions in Greece. How did America help? (Truman Doctrine!) • Who was George C. Marshall? • What was the Marshall Plan? • How was Germany divided? • Explain the two Cold War alliances.
Maintain peace by guaranteeing the security of member nations Foster good relations among nations Encourage cooperation on economic, cultural, and humanitarian problems What was the purpose of the United Nations?
How is power divided within the UN? • Security Council • Decides political/military disputes • 11 members (5 permanent are Britain, China, France, Russia, and the U.S.) • General Assembly • Policy making body • Each member nation has one vote • Economic and Social Council • International Court of Justice • Trusteeship Council
Which two US presidents tried to work with Stalin after WWII? How did this turn out? • President Roosevelt • President Truman • U.S. believed the best way to achieve security was to strengthen democracy in Europe. • Stalin wanted to establish pro-Soviet governments in Eastern Europe.
How did Stalin break his promise from the Yalta Conference? • At Yalta, Stalin promised to allow free elections in Poland if he received control of the country. • THIS GOES AGAINST COMMUNIST BELIEFS!!! • Stalin refused to allow free elections • Stalin ousted any non-Communists from the government
Countries controlled by the Soviet Union They had their own governments, but were still heavily influenced by the Soviet Union. What were some examples of Soviet Satellite nations? What are satellite nations?
Soviet-made divider that split Europe into non-Communist Western Europe and Communist Eastern Europe. Winston Churchill first used it in a speech: “From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended cross the continent of Europe.” THIS IS NOT A REAL BARRIER! What was the iron curtain?
1947 – George Kennan Stop the spread of communism! Describe the policy of containment.
Describe post-WWII conditions in Greece. How did America help? (Truman Doctrine!) • By 1947, local Communists were fighting against pro-Western monarchy. • Aided by communists in Yugoslavia and Albania. • US feared that if Greece fell to communism, the rest of Europe would follow. • Truman Doctrine: Loan money to nations who are threatened by communism. • Congress gave Greece $400 million in aide
Chief of Staff in the U.S. Army during WWII Secretary of State under President Truman Proposed an aide program, known as the Marshall Plan. Who was George C. Marshall?
What was the Marshall Plan? • Aided nations who were destroyed by WWII. • US feared that unstable countries would find communism more appealing. • If they were given money to rebuild their government/economy, they would stay democratic.
How was Germany divided? • U.S., Britain, and France merged their zones in 1948 to create an independent West German state. • June 1948: Stalin decided to gain control of West Berlin, which was deep inside the Eastern Sector • Cuts road, rail, and canal links with West Berlin; hoping to starve it into submission.
NATO: North Atlantic Treaty Organization In 1949 the western nations formed the North Atlantic Treaty Organization to coordinate their defense against USSR. Pledged signers to treat an attack against one, as an attack against all It originally consisted of: America - Holland Belgium - Italy Britain - Luxembourg Canada - Norway Denmark - Portugal France When West Germany joined in 1955, the Soviets responded….. NATO flag 31
Warsaw Pact Warsaw Pact: organization of communist states in Central and Eastern Europe. Established May 14, 1955 in Warsaw, Poland in response to NATO Founding members: Albania (left in 1961) - Poland Bulgaria - Romania Czechoslovakia - USSR (founding member) Hungary - East Germany (joined in 1956) 32